Organic Compounds vs. Inorganic Compounds: What's the Difference?

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Key Difference

The difference between organic compound and the inorganic compound is that organic compound has one carbon atom and one hydrogen atom whereas inorganic compound neither have carbon atom nor hydrogen atom.

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Organic Compounds vs. Inorganic Compounds

There are two types of compounds that are an organic compound, inorganic compounds. Difference between organic compounds and the inorganic compound is the basis of chemistry. If we talk about the main difference between organic and inorganic compound is that is that organic compound has one carbon atom and one hydrogen atom whereas inorganic compound neither have carbon atom nor hydrogen atom. Some inorganic compounds do have carbon atom.  The most common examples of inorganic compounds that have carbon atom are carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. In carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, the amount of carbon is very less as compared to other compounds.  As the amount of carbon is decidedly less in these compounds, they form a very weak bond. The difference between the organic compound and the inorganic compound is also made by the association of these compounds with living things. Organic compounds include nucleic acids, DNA, lipids and other fatty acids whereas inorganic compounds provide organism, proteins and enzymes.

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What is a molecule? A molecule is made from one or more atoms of the same element. The molecule is also known as the smallest amount of chemical substance. If we talk about compounds, there are only two types of molecules that are organic compounds and inorganic compounds. Organic compounds always have carbon and hydrogen that makes carbon-hydrogen bonds that makes them stronger than inorganic compounds. Compounds that do not have carbon-hydrogen bonds are known as inorganic compounds.

Comparison Chart

Basis Organic compounds Inorganic compounds
Meaning Organic compound has one carbon atom and one hydrogen atom Inorganic compound neither has a carbon atom nor hydrogen atom. 
Nature Organic compounds are biological Inorganic compounds are mineral in nature
Form Organic compounds are mostly in the form of gases, liquid and solids. Inorganic compounds are mostly in the form of solids.
Bonds Organic compounds form covalent bonds. Inorganic compounds form ionic bonds
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 What are Organic compounds?

Organic compound has one carbon atom and one hydrogen atom. Organic compounds are associated with living organisms because they are associated with life processes. Branch of chemistry that deals with the study of organic compounds are known as organic chemistry. There is four essential kinds of organic compounds that are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.

  • Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for living things. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides are simple carbohydrates; they are single because they have single molecules. Disaccharides have two molecules; glucose is the most common example of carbohydrates. Glucose is the most important element for living organism.

  • Lipids

Lipids are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Steroids are made of hormones that are produced with waxes and fats. Lipids are fat molecules; there are 4 to 34 atoms of carbon in lipids.

  • Proteins

Proteins are known to be complex organic compounds; proteins are primarily amino acids. An amino acid contains carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen atoms.

  • Nucleic acid

As compared to carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, the nucleic acid is the huge and complex molecules. A single nucleotide contains carbohydrate that is also known as sugar, phosphate group and nitrogen.

Examples of organic compounds

Organic compounds are associated with a living organism. There is carbon in all organic compounds and includes nucleic acids, fats, proteins, sugars and hydrocarbons fuels. Example of organic compounds are:

  • Table sugar that is also known as sucrose
  • DNA
  • Benzene
  • Ethanol that is also known as grain alcohol
  • Methane

What are Inorganic compounds?

Inorganic compounds are totally different from organic compounds. Inorganic compound neither has a carbon atom nor hydrogen atom. Inorganic compounds do not have carbon and hydrogen, and due to the presence of carbon and hydrogen, inorganic compounds do not form a strong carbon-hydrogen bond. Inorganic compounds are minerals and geologically compounds. Most of the inorganic compounds contain metals. As compare to organic compounds, inorganic compounds are more than organic compounds. Inorganic compounds are used in the world in very large amount as compared to organic compounds.

Examples of inorganic compounds

Inorganic compounds include salts and metals. Inorganic salts and metals are mostly made of single elements. Carbon bonded with hydrogen is not present. Following are the examples of inorganic compounds

  • Table salt that is also known as sodium chloride
  • Silver
  • Sulfur
  • Pure carbon

Following are some inorganic compounds:

  • Aluminium boride – AlB2
  • Aluminium bromide – AlBr3
  • Aluminium carbide – Al4C3
  • Aluminium iodide – AlI3
  • Aluminium nitride – AlN
  • Aluminium oxide – Al2O3
  • Aluminium phosphide – AlP
  • Aluminium chloride – AlCl3
  • Aluminium fluoride – AlF3
  • Aluminium hydroxide – Al(OH)3
  • Barium azide – Ba(N3)2
  • Barium carbonate – BaCO3
  • Barium chlorate – Ba(ClO3)2
  • Barium chloride – BaCl2
  • Barium chromate – BaCrO4
  • Barium ferrate – BaFeO4
  • Barium ferrite – BaFe2O4
  • Barium fluoride – BaF2
  • Barium hydroxide – Ba(OH)2
  • Barium iodide – BaI2
  • Barium nitrate – Ba(NO3)2
  • Barium oxalate – Ba(C2O4)
  • Barium oxide – BaO
  • Barium peroxide – BaO2
  • Barium sulfate – BaSO4
  • Barium sulfide – BaS
  • Barium titanate – BaTiO3

Key Differences

  1. Organic compound has one carbon atom, and one hydrogen atom whereas Inorganic compound neither have carbon atom nor hydrogen atom.
  2. Organic compounds are biological whereas Inorganic compounds are mineral in nature.
  3. Organic compounds are mostly in the form of gases, liquid and solids whereas Inorganic compounds are mainly in the form of solids.
  4. Organic compounds form covalent bonds whereas inorganic compounds form ionic bonds.

Conclusion

In the article above we see the clear difference between organic compounds and inorganic compounds. Organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry are the main branches of chemistry, and it’s essential to see the difference between organic and inorganic compounds.

Explanatory Video

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