Old Biotechnology vs. New Biotechnology
Old Biotechnology vs. New Biotechnology
Old Biotechnology involves the processes that are based on the inherent ability of microorganisms or biological agents for carrying out reactions that ultimately lead to the formation of required products, whereas, New Biotechnology involves manipulation of the genome and the innate capabilities of organisms for making them more desirable or meeting innovating demands of the modern world. Old biotechnology exploits the potential of processes that are performed by these living organisms, whereas, new biotechnology is more involved in the manipulation of the genes of different organisms and also involves usage of their genes in other living organisms to acquire that specific trait.
Old biotechnology refers to ancient ways of using living organisms to make a new product or modify the existing ones; however, new biotechnology involves modern ways as recombinant DNA, Tissue culture and Genetic engineering for achieving the required results. It only involves physical modification of subjects at the visual level does not focus at the molecular level, whereas, in new biotechnology, the focus is not only on modifying it physically at a visual level rather it also covers any changes that are made due to these modifications at the molecular level. Examples of old biotechnology are fermentation processes, cloning of plants, etc., whereas, examples of new biotechnology are insulin, use of living organisms as Bt gene from bacterium Bacillus, Golden rice developed with recombinant DNA technology, etc.
What is Old Biotechnology?
Old Biotechnology related to the Paleolithic people when they began to settle and develop agrarian societies around 10,000 years ago. These people that time cultivated wheat barley etc. with time people started settling down and became sedentary due to an increase in population and rising demand for food led to some serious evolution. The shifts in climate and dwindling of herds of migratory animals and then these people collected the seeds of wild plants for cultivation and some other species of different animals around them and started performing selective breeding which is also known as artificial selection.
This initiation in this field in the era led people using these tools for their required products. The fermented dough was discovered by accident when the dough was not baked immediately and underwent fermentation, and this was the result of using the old uncooked dough such as saccharomyces winlocki. Egyptians then exported these bread to Greece and Rome, and while improving the technique, they discovered the role of yeast in baking by Pasteur and production of the baker’s yeast.
Old biotechnology involves the processes that are based on the inherent ability of microorganisms or biological agents for carrying out reactions that ultimately lead to the formation of required products. It only feats the probable of procedures that are done by these living organisms. People from old times have been preparing products like bread, wine, etc. without knowing the reason behind these finished outcomes. These processes were carried out without them knowing that microorganisms were involved in the production of these bread and other yeast related products.
Old biotechnology discusses the old ways of consuming living organisms to change prevailing ones or produce new products. All of these processes were based on the capability of the involved microorganisms and the biologic agents. The innate abilities of these organisms were being used for making a product.
As in fermented foods, this process was being carried out for years without the people knowing about the basics of the involvement of living organisms in carrying out the whole process. The wine was also made by accident when grape juices were contaminated with yeast and other microbes. In all of these processes, the involvement of living organisms on carrying out the reactions was not important for users.
It was not the objective to make physical changes by making amendments at the molecular level. Rather using these organisms for their required products was important and that’s what is represented by old biotechnology. Examples of fermentation are fermentation processes, the cloning of plants, yeasts, molds, and lactic acid bacteria which are being used for the preservation of food and for enhancing the quality of life.
What is the New Biotechnology?
New Biotechnology involves manipulation of the genome and the innate capabilities of organisms for making them more desirable or meeting the innovating demands of the modern world. After the discovery of the first microscope, the reasons behind the processes that were being carried out under the foundation of old biotechnology were observed. Thus, the changes in physical properties of a subject for the first time were observed at the molecular level rather than just a visual level.
The scientists after the discovery of DNA started manipulating the genome of an organism, which leads to the base of new biotechnology. In this modern form of biotechnology, the main focus was on the molecular level of an object and the amendments that could be made to these subjects and what will be the results. For achieving the required results, different characteristics of organisms were used.
As in insulin, the bacterium used for its reproduction rate leads to the multiplication of insulin at its rate of production, the required product was thus obtained by using this technique. The evolution of this biotechnology uses tools as recombinant DNA technology, Tissue culture, and Genetic engineering for achieving its required results. New biotechnology is more involved in the manipulation of the genes of different organisms and also involves the usage of their genes in other living organisms to acquire that specific trait.
The focus of new biotechnology is not only on modifying it physically at the visual level but rather it also covers any changes that are made due to these modifications at the molecular level. All the controversies associated with new biotechnology is since we are manipulating the genome or DNA of that specific organism. The most commonly used process is genetic engineering to create genetically modified organisms.
Biotechnology also includes industrial products that use living cells in the making of their products. Examples of new biotechnology are that it is used in the synthesis of insulin, use of living organisms as Bt gene from bacterium Bacillus in making Bt cotton and Bt brinjal that are resistant to many insects, tomatoes with an enhanced shelf life, and in golden rice developed with recombinant DNA technology, etc.