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Difference Between Genomics and Proteomics

Main Difference

The main difference between genomics and proteomics is that genomics is the entire study of genes that are present in the genome of a cell, whereas proteomics is the entire study of proteins that are generally produced by the cells.

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Genomics vs. Proteomics

Genomics comprises analysis of genomes, sequencing, and mapping, while proteomics contains the function and 3D structures of proteins, and various protein-protein relations. Genomics is classified into two types functional genomics and structural genomics, whereas proteomics is classified into three types that are functional, structural, and expression proteomics.

The important areas of genomics are the genome sequencing projects, which include the Human Genome Project; on the other hand, several important areas of proteomics are the proteome database developments, which are software development for computer-aided drug design and SWISS-2DPAGE. Genomics is the study of entire genes in organisms; on the contrary, proteomics is generally the study of entire proteins in various cells.

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In genomics, the genome is usually constant, and all cells have the same set of genes in all organisms; conversely, in proteomics, the proteome usually varies and dynamic and all the set of proteins form in various tissues of organisms conferring to the gene expression. In genomics, the study of genes plays an important role in understanding the function, location, structure, and regulation of the genes in organisms; on the flip side, in proteomics, the study of proteins helps in understanding the structure and functions of proteins in cells.

Comparison Chart

GenomicsProteomics
Genomics generally refers to the whole study of genes in the entire genome of the cell in all the organisms.Proteomics usually refers to the entire study of proteins, which are generally produced by the cells in all organisms.
Phenomena
Comprises analysis of genomes, sequencing, and mappingContains the function and 3D structures of proteins, and various protein-protein relations
Classification
Classified into two types functional genomics and structural genomicsClassified into three types that are functional, structural, and expression proteomics
Important Areas
The genome sequencing projects which include the Human Genome ProjectThe proteome database developments which are software development for computer-aided drug design and SWISS-2DPAGE
Study Of
The study of entire genes in organismsThe study of entire proteins in various cells
Nature of Study Material
The genome is usually constant, and all cells have the same set of genes in all organismsThe proteome usually varies, and dynamic and all the set of proteins form in various tissues of organisms conferring to the gene expression
Importance
The study of genes plays an important role in understanding the function, location, structure, and regulation of the genes in organismsThe study of proteins helps in understanding the structure and functions of proteins in cells
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What is Genomics?

The term genomics is defined as the whole study of genes in the entire genome of the cell in all the organisms. The genome which is present in the cells of organisms contains the whole set of genetic material, which is chiefly made of DNA. A high level of techniques is used to analysis of genomes, sequencing, and mapping of genomes.

Various gene sequencing strategies are used in genomics, which is sequencing, construction of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), whole-genome shotgun sequencing, directed gene, identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and the analysis or explanation of sequenced data using different software and database. Genomics is classified into two types functional genomics and structural genomics.

Types

  • Functional Genomics: Vital role and various functions of the genes in cells in modifying metabolic actions are studied under functional genomics.
  • Structural Genomics: The relative positions and structure of the genes are studied under structural genomics.

What is Proteomics?

The term proteomics is defined as the entire study of proteins, which are generally produced by the cells in all organisms. The proteomes are generally the complete set of proteins that are normally produced by the various cells of all organisms. Proteomics contains the function and 3D structures of proteins, and various protein-protein relations.

Various techniques are involved in the proteomics process, for instance, digestion of proteins with the use of trypsin into minimum sized fragments, extraction and electrophoretic separation of proteins, identification of proteins using the information in the protein database, determination of the amino acid sequence by mass spectrometry. Proteomics is classified into three types that are functional, structural, and expression proteomics.

Key Differences

  1. Genomics is the study of the total gene complement of organisms; on the contrary, proteomics is generally the study of total proteins present in various cells.
  2. Genomics consists analyzation of genomes, sequencing, and mapping; on the other hand, proteomics consists of the structures and functions of proteins present in the cells.
  3. Genomics is categorized into two types functional genomics and structural genomics, whereas proteomics is ordered into three types that are functional, structural, and expression proteomics.
  4. The significant zones of genomics are the projects of genome sequencing, which comprises the Human Genome Project; on the other hand, the vital parts of proteomics are the proteome database developments, which include the software development for computer-aided drug design.
  5. In genomics, the gene complement always remains the same; conversely, in proteomics, the protein complement always changes, and all the sets of proteins form relate to the gene expression.
  6. In genomics, genes’study plays an important role in determining the function and regulation of the genes in an individual; on the other hand, in proteomics, the proteins’study plays an important role in determining the structure and functions of all proteins in cells.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that in genomics, the genome is usually the same, and all cells have the same set of genes in all organisms, and genomics is usually the entire study of genes that are present in the genome of a cell. Whereas proteomics is the entire study of proteins that are generally produced by the cells, and the proteome usually fluctuates and dynamic, and all the sets of proteins form in various tissues of organisms conferring to the gene expression.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White