Biology

Difference Between Glucose and Dextrose

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Main Difference

The main difference between Glucose and Dextrose is that the Glucose contains both L-form and D-form optical isomers, whereas Dextrose contains only D-form optical isomer.

Glucose vs. Dextrose

Glucose is the type of pure sugar that has the molecular formula C6H12O6; on the flip side, dextrose is the second name for the D-form glucose having the same molecular formula. Glucose can occur in both optical isomers as mirror images; on the other hand, dextrose can occur only in one optical isomeric form. Glucose occurs in D-form and L-form; on the opposite side, dextrose can occur only in D-form.

Glucose can occur in all forms of carbohydrates; on the other hand, dextrose occurs in a few types of starches. Glucose can rotate the polarized light in both directions left and right; on the other side of the coin, dextrose can rotates polarized light only in the right direction. The L-form of glucose is less abundant, and D-form is more abundant in nature; on the flip side, dextrose is more abundant in nature.

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Glucose can be found as enantiomers; on the other hand, dextrose cannot be seen as enantiomers. Glucose usually gives a negative connotation in food products as compared to dextrose. Glucose is the primary source of energy in metabolic activities; on the other side of the coin, dextrose is the natural form of glucose.

Comparison Chart

GlucoseDextrose
Glucose is the pure sugar having a molecular formula of C6H12O6.Dextrose is a common name that is used for D-form of glucose
Different Types
It is found in D-form and L-formsIt is found in D-form of glucose
Rotation of Polarized Light
D-glucose can rotate polarized light to the right direction, and L-glucose can turn light to the leftIt can rotate light to the left orientation only
Occurrence
It can be obtained from all forms of carbohydratesIt can be derived only from starches
Abundance
D-glucose is more abundantly present, but L-glucose is less abundantly presentIt is more abundantly present in nature
Enantiomers
It is present as enantiomersIt is not present as enantiomers
Optical Isomers
It has two optical isomersIt has only one optical isomer
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What is Glucose?

Glucose is the simplest monosaccharide that is used for the formation of many other essential polysaccharides. It is the sweetest carbohydrate that is easily dissolved in the water solvents. Glucose is the chemical formula C6H12O6. It has two optical isomers, including the D-form and L-form. That’s why it can present in the form of enantiomers. It can be obtained from all types of carbohydrates.

D-glucose and L-glucose are the mirror image of each other. Both are known as the aldehyde comprising compounds. These mirror images can be enantiomers. D-glucose is more abundantly present in nature as compared to the L-glucose. Glucose can cause the rotation of the plane-polarized light. D- form causes the light to rotate right, whereas the L-form causes the light to rotate left.

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There are many uses of glucose in different fields of industry. It is used for the manufacturing of different ingredients and other sweet-tasting food. These uses is because is more abundantly present in nature. It is also used in the medical field for the treatment of different diseases. It is used to treat the hypoglycemia that is characterized by there exist of low blood glucose or sugar.

What is Dextrose?

Dextrose is termed as another common name for the D-form of glucose. It is also very sweet and easily soluble in water solvents. It is the monosaccharide that is used for the manufacturing of other different essential polysaccharides. It has the same chemical formula as glucose and has a sweet taste.it has only one optical isomer in the form of D-glucose. That’s why it is never present in the form of the enantiomers. It is found and can be obtained from all types of starches.

Dextrose is the mirror image of the L-form of glucose. It is also an aldehyde containing monosaccharide. But they are not called as the enantiomers. It, too, can cause the rotation of plane-polarized light in the right direction only just like the D-glucose. It is also exceedingly abundantly present in nature. It is also found in both powder and liquid form in the market.

There are many other uses of dextrose in different fields of industry. It is used as an essential ingredient in packaged food because it is easy availability. It is just 20% less sweet than sucrose drinks. It is also used to increase the blood sugar level very quickly. It also has importance in the medical field. It is also used for relating to hypoglycemia.

Key Differences

  1. Glucose occurs in D-form and L-form; on the other hand, dextrose occurs only in D-form.
  2. Glucose can be found as enantiomers; on the flip side, dextrose cannot be found as enantiomers.
  3. Glucose has two optical isomers; on the other side of the coin, dextrose has only one optical isomer.
  4. Glucose is the pure sugar having the same molecular formula C6H12O6; on the opposite side, dextrose is the second common name of D-glucose.
  5. L-glucose is less abundantly present, but D-glucose is more abundantly present in nature; on the other hand, dextrose is more abundantly present in the environment.
  6. Glucose can be obtained from all forms of carbohydrates; on the flip side, dextrose can be derived from the starches.
  7. D-glucose causes the rotation of polarized light in the right direction, and the L-form of glucose causes the rotation of plane-polarized in the left direction; on the opposite side, dextrose can rotate plane-polarized light in the right direction.
  8. Glucose is the vital source of energy for several cellular activities; on the other of the coin, dextrose is just the natural form of glucose.
  9. Glucose is used in food products labeling give negative connotation; on the other side of the coin, dextrose is used for flavoring purposes.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that both glucose and dextrose is the type of sugar. Glucose has two optical isomers that are the mirror image of each other; on the other hand, dextrose has only one optical isomer that is the mirror image of L-form of glucose.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White

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