Vitamin is an organic compound and essential micronutrient that our body needs in limited amount to grow and develop normally. Vitamins are obtained through diet because organisms cannot synthesize these compound in sufficient quantities. Vitamins are classified as either water soluble vitamins or fat soluble vitamins. Vitamins that are not stored in our body are known as water soluble vitamins. And those vitamins that can be stored in our body are called as fat soluble vitamins. Vitamin B and C are water soluble vitamins. Vitamin A, D, E and K are fat soluble vitamins.
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins that can be stored in our human body is called as fat soluble vitamins. Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat soluble vitamins. Fat soluble vitamins dissolve in fat and are stored in liver and fat tissues until they are needed. Fat soluble vitamins cannot be easily excreted from the body except vitamin K, so they are toxic if taken in excessive amounts. Absorption of these vitamins totally depend upon efficient fat intake and absorption. In healthy individuals, eating a normal and healthy diet will not lead to toxicity of these vitamins. Vitamin A also known as retinol help eyes to adjust in light changes also vitamin A play role in bone growth, reproduction, regulation of immune system and cell division. Vitamin D can be obtained through sunlight and it helps in absorption of calcium from small intestine which then absorbs in our bone and make them stronger. Vitamin D in children is essential for the development of stronger bones and healthy teeth. Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant which protects vitamin A and C, RBCs, essential fatty acids from destruction. Vitamin K is produced by bacteria that are present in our gut, it helps in normal blood clotting, production of proteins for blood, bones, kidneys and promotes bone health.
Water Soluble Vitamins
Those vitamins which cannot be stored in our body are called as water soluble vitamins. Vitamin B-complex and vitamin C are water soluble vitamins. Water soluble vitamins are dissolved in water and eliminated in urine. So, we require continuous daily supplement of these vitamins in our diet. Vitamin B-complex is divided into eight groups: vitamin B1 or thiamine is important for maintaining our nervous system, it also helps to release energy from food and it promotes normal appetite. Vitamin B2 or riboflavin promotes good vision and healthy skin. Vitamin B3 or niacin helps in normal enzyme function, promotes healthy skin, normal appetite and nerves. Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine aids in protein metabolism and formation of RBCs. Folic acid promotes RBCs formation. Vitamin B12 or cobalamine aids in building of genetic material. Biotin aids in metabolism of fats, protein and carbohydrates. Pantothenic acid helps in the formation of hormones. And last Vitamin C or ascorbic acid, it helps in the formation of collagen, a connective tissue that holds muscles, bones and tissues together. It also helps in wound healing, maintaining nervous system and in absorption of iron.
- Fat soluble vitamins can be stored in our body while water soluble vitamins cannot be stored in our body.
- Fat soluble vitamins are dissolved in fat and stored in liver and fatty tissues while water soluble vitamins are dissolved in water and eliminated in urine.
- Vitamin A, D, E and K are fat soluble vitamins and Vitamin B-complex and vitamin C are water soluble vitamins.
- Fat soluble vitamins are toxic if taken in excessive amounts while water soluble vitamins are not toxic if taken in high amounts.
- Fat soluble vitamins can be taken in a single large dose while water soluble vitamins are required on daily basis.