Difference Between White-Box Testing and Black-Box Testing


Main Difference

In the world of automated software testing, different methods are used for software testing, in which there are two most prominent testing techniques known as white box testing and black box testing. Their purpose is to issue a clean chit that an attacker cannot access to your application or software. In this article the purpose is to identify the each testing method and check for any differences between them to ensure that a clear understanding of the both terms has been developed.

What is White-Box Testing?

White-Box testing, which is also recognize by the name of clear box testing, glass box testing and structural box testing, is a technique of testing the internal structure and working process of a software or application. The tester or investigator first develop an inputs for making path throughout the code and establish an outputs. White Box testing can be applied at three stages. Either it can be applied at the unit or integration or system levels of the application or software testing process. In past, most of the testing was being done at input levels but modern testers frequently used it at integration and system testing levels. By this method, a tester can unveil the many errors and problems. White Box testing cover the code area by control flow testing, data flow testing, branch testing, statement coverage, modified condition, prime path testing and path testing.


What is Black-Box Testing?

Black-Box testing is a technique of testing the functionality of software or application without going through into the internal structures or working system of the application or software. This testing technique can be applied at four level of the software testing. Either you can applied it at unit, or integration or system or at acceptance level. In comparison to other levels, unit testing is dominantly performed by Black-Box testing. Performing a Black-Box testing is an easy process, as you are not required to have the complete knowledge of programming. Main concern in this system is to understand what the software will do, not how it will do. Decision table testing, all pairs testing, state transition analysis, equivalence, boundary value analysis, cause effect graph and error guessing are some techniques to perform Black-Box testing.


Key Differences

  1. Knowledge of internal structure and programming is not necessary in performing Black-Box testing while internal knowledge of the software structure is crucial for performing a White-Box testing.
  2. In practice, White-Box testing is a recommended methodology to perform the all type of testing. While Black-Box testing is specialist in performing testing at unit levels.
  3. Although White-Box testing is a recommended method of testing but option of testing at acceptance level is just available in Black-Box testing.
  4. Black-Box testing focuses on the functional requirements of software while White-Box testing test the internal structure and work system by going deeply into code and structure of the software.
  5. Black-Box testing is applicable to higher level of testing like system testing and acceptance testing while White-Box testing is mostly appropriate for lower levels of testing like unit testing and integration testing.
Harlon Moss

Harlon currently works as a quality moderator and content writer for Difference Wiki. He graduated from the University of California in 2010 with a degree in Computer Science. Follow him on Twitter @HarlonMoss