Biology

Difference Between Primates and Non Primates

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Main Difference

The main difference between Primates and Non Primates is that Primates consist of a large and complicated forebrain, whereas Non Primates consists of a relatively small brain.

Primates vs. Non Primates

Primates are considered as an order of mammals categorized by the large and complicated brain, use of hands, and complex behavior. In contrast, non primates are regarded as any animal which is not a primate. Some examples of primates are monkeys, apes, humans, gorilla, chimpanzees, lemur, baboon, and orangutan; on the other hand, various models of non primates include amphibians, some kinds of mammals, birds, and reptiles.

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The primates contain a large, complicated forebrain, so ideally, they all are intelligent; on the contrary, non primates contain a small forebrain, so some of the non primates are intelligent. Primates consist of nimble-fingered limbs; on the flip side, many non primates contains legs for movement.

Primates possess a thumb that is opposable to the other four fingers, allowing grasping with the palm; on the flip side, non primates are unable to seize with the use of their thumbs. Primates mostly depend on vision; on the other hand, non primates primarily depend on smell.

Forward eyes having a stereoscopic vision is present in primates, while non primates consist of many different organizational levels in their eyes, for example, simple eyes or compound eyes. Primates have a clavicle bone; on the contrary, non primates do not possess a clavicle bone.

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A menstrual cycle occurs in female primates. At the end of each period, menstruation occurs in the absence of fertilization in which sperm and egg do not meet; on the flip side, an oestrus cycle takes place in female non primates. Primates are considered continuous breeders, while non primates are considered seasonal breeders.

Comparison Chart

PrimatesNon Primates
Primates are eutherian mammals having the taxonomic order Primates and was first arose 85-55 million years ago.Non Primates are those animals that are not considered primates and have prehensile limbs or tails.
Considered As
An order of mammals categorized by the voluminous and complicated brain, use of hands, and complex behaviorAny animal which is not a primate
Brain
Contains a large, complicated forebrainContain a small forebrain
Intelligence
Primates all are intelligentSome of the non primates are intelligent
Limbs
Consists of nimble-fingered limbsMany contain limbs for movement
Grasping Power of the Hand
Possess a thumb which is opposable to the other four fingers, allowing grasping with the palmUnable to grasp with the use of their thumbs
Sensation
Mostly depends on the visionPrimarily depends on smell
Vision
Forward eyes having a stereoscopic vision is presentConsists of many different organizational levels in their eyes such as simple eyes or complex eyes
Clavicle
Have a clavicle boneDo not possess a clavicle bone
Sexual Cycles
A menstrual cycle occurs in female primates. At the end of each period, menstruation occurs in the absence of fertilizationAn oestrus cycle takes place in female non primates, while menstrual cycle is absent in them
Seasonal/Continuous Breeders
Continuous breedersSeasonal breeders
Examples
Monkeys, apes, humans, gorilla, chimpanzees, lemur, baboon, and orangutanAmphibians, some kinds of mammals, birds, and reptiles
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What are Primates?

Primates show a significant level of social interaction with other animals and social adaptability. They are referred to as an order of mammals, which is characterized by the voluminous brain, having complex behavior and their use of hands.

Chimpanzees, humans, apes, monkeys, gorilla, lemur, baboon, and orangutan are some examples of primates. The body parts of primates are prehensile, including hands, tail, and as well as feet, though human feet are not considered prehensile. Many of the primates consist of five fingers in each hand known as pentadactyl.

The thumb of the hand is opposable to the other fingers and help in grasping with palm and can hold their food and grab branches. The primates’ limbs are highly dexterous from the shoulders and the hip joints, which are ideal for swinging through the trees.

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One of the most noticeable and distinct features of the primates is their large voluminous brain. The olfactory part of the brain is mainly reduced in primates, but they have a large cerebrum or forebrain, which increase their sight and social behavior. Consequently, they can coordinate their hands with their eyes.

Primates also have a clavicle bone. Many primates are considered quadrupedal animals, but all primates can be straight. Humans are considered bipedal animals and stand on their hind legs.

What are Non Primates?

Non primates are those which refer to any animal that is not a primate. They have small forebrain, and thus their thinking capability and intelligence are inferior to those of primates. Though pigs, crows, octopus, dolphins, and elephants are known as intelligent non primates.

Feet are used by crows to utilize tools. Also, they can hide and store food from season to season. They can predict future conditions from their episodic-like memory.

The pig is considered as the most intelligent domesticated animal. The intelligent invertebrate is an octopus, which has both short-term and long-term memory and as well as problem-solving abilities.

Amphibians, birds, reptiles, and some mammals are considered non-primates. Usually, non primates consist of non-prehensile tails and limbs. Some of the non primates, for example, insects, have jointed appendages.

Key Differences

  1. An order of eutherian mammals featured by the voluminous brain and their complex behavior, mostly usage of hands, is known as primates. In contrast, all other animals which are not primate are considered as non primates.
  2. As primates have large and complicated forebrain, they all are intelligent; on the other hand, some of the non primates are intelligent because they consist of a small brain.
  3. Primates primarily rely on their vision; on the flip side, non primates generally depends on the smell.
  4. Primates possess a clavicle bone; on the contrary, non primates do not own a clavicle bone.
  5. Primates are continuous breeders, and they reproduce throughout the year, while non primates are seasonal breeders, and they reproduce only in their specific season.
  6. Female primates consist of a menstrual cycle, and menstruation takes place in the absence of fertilization at the end of each menstrual cycle; on the other hand, female non primates consist of an oestrus cycle, and no menstruation takes place in non primates.
  7. Primates consist of forwarding eyes with the vision of stereoscopic; on the flip side, non primates have various structural levels in their eyes, such as simple eyes or complex eyes.
  8. In the hand of primates, they consist of five fingers in which their thumb is opposable to the other four digits and enabled them to grasp with the palm; on the contrary, non primates are incapable of grasping by using their thumbs.
  9. The dexterous limbs are present in primates, while non primates consist of limbs mainly for locomotion.
  10. Humans, chimpanzees, apes, monkeys, baboon, gorilla, lemur, and orangutan are some examples of primates; on the flip side, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and some of the mammals are non primates.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that the primates are intelligent because they have large and complex forebrain, while some of the non primates are intelligent because they have a small brain.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White

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