Biology

Difference Between Cladogram Tree and Phylogenetic Tree

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Main Difference

The main difference between Cladogram Tree and Phylogenetic Tree is that Cladogram Tree is a diagram shows divisions having the same distance and displaying the connection among an assemblage of clades, whereas Phylogenetic Tree is an evolutionary tree displaying an estimation of phylogeny in which the space of each branch is relative to the amount of incidental evolutionary change.

Cladogram Tree vs. Phylogenetic Tree

A cladogram tree is considered as a diagram having branches that shows the relationships between a group of clades. On the other hand, a phylogenetic tree is considered as a branching diagram that shows the contingent association among many biological species, which are typically based on differences and similarities and also on genetic material. The purpose of the cladogram tree is that its shape shows the relatedness between many groups of organisms, while in the phylogenetic tree, the distance among the branches relies on the amount of indirect evolutionary change.

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The genetic distance or the evolutionary time is not represented by the cladogram tree, whereas the genetic distance present between the group of organisms and the evolutionary is represented by the phylogenetic tree. A hypothesis about the real evolutionary history is represented by a cladogram tree; however, the phylogenetic tree gives the real evolutionary history to some level.

The cladogram tree is mainly based on the morphological features of the organisms to be shown; on the contrary, the phylogenetic tree is not only based on some morphological features of the organisms but also on the genetic relationships of the organisms to be described. The cladogram tree is made with equal length of branches, and this length of branches does not tell the evolutionary distance, while in the phylogenetic tree, the branching distance indicates the evolutionary distance.

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When separating the organism’s taxa, the cladogram tree does not indicate the amount of evolutionary time; on its flip side, the phylogenetic tree shows the amount of evolutionary change when differentiating the organism’s taxa.

Comparison Chart

Cladogram TreePhylogenetic Tree
The diagrams which are used in cladistics to represent a link of organisms and how thoroughly they are associated with each other is known as cladogram tree.A branching diagram or commonly called ‘tree,’ presenting the anecdotal evolutionary relationships between various biological species, is known as a phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree.
Considered As
A diagram having branches which shows the relationships between a group of cladesBranching diagram which shows the contingent association among many biological species which are typically based on differences and similarities and also on genetic material
Relatedness
The purpose is that its shape shows the relatedness between many groups of organismsThe distance among the branches rely on the amount of indirect evolutionary change
Evolutionary Time or Genetic Distance
The genetic distance or the evolutionary time is not represented by the cladogram treeThe genetic distance present between the group of organisms and the evolutionary is represented by the phylogenetic tree
Evolutionary History
A hypothesis about the real evolutionary history is representedGives the true evolutionary history to some level
Basis
Primarily based on the morphological features of the organisms to be shownNot only based on some morphological features of the organisms but also on the genetic relationships of the organisms to be described
Length of Branches
Made with equal length of branches, and this length of branches does not tell the evolutionary distanceThe branching distance indicates the evolutionary distance
Indication of Evolutionary Time
When separating the organism’s taxa, it tree does not indicate the amount of evolutionary timeShows the amount of evolutionary change when differentiating the organism’s taxa
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What is a Cladogram Tree?

A cladogram tree is known as a branching diagram that is used in cladistics to illustration the evolutionary relationship between the group of clades. A clade is called an assemblage of organisms that consist of entirely evolutionary progenies of a common predecessor.

The amount of evolutionary change in a group of organisms is not depicted by the cladogram tree, nor does it specify the genetic distance or evolutionary time. Each branch of a cladogram tree terminates with a clade and begins with a last common predecessor. The cladogram tree is mainly founded on some morphological features of the specific organisms to be shown.

The cladogram tree is made with equal length of branches, and this length of branches does not tell the evolutionary distance. The cladogram tree does not indicate the amount of evolutionary time when separating the organism’s taxa. A cladogram is drawn by lines and is a tree-like diagram. In a cladogram, the nodes symbolize the detaching of two groups from their common ancestor.

What is a Phylogenetic Tree?

A phylogenetic tree is an evolutionary tree and a branching diagram that primarily describe the indirect relationships between many biological organisms. In the phylogenetic tree, the space present between the branches usually shows the extent of incidental evolutionary modification.

Many features such as internal anatomy, external morphology, behavior, DNA and protein sequences, biochemical pathways, and also the proof of fossils are most importantly used to make a phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree gives the real evolutionary history to some level, but they are not always correct. The information which is given by the sequencing of DNA raises the dependability of the associations in the tree.

In evolutionary biology, phylogenetic studies are more useful to find answers to many difficult problems, for example, the spread of viral infections, the relationship between species and their origin, migration patterns of species, etc. The advanced level of molecular biological methods has helped many biologists to calculate phylogenetic connections among organisms concerning the evolutionary modifications of the organisms.

When compare with cladograms, the phylogenetic tree contains more significance when talking about the associations of organisms in a significant way regarding their descendants and evolution. A phylogenetic tree is usually sketched as similar to a branching tree diagram in which branch distance is comparative to the evolutionary distance when contrasting a cladogram.

Key Differences

  1. The cladogram tree is not an evolutionary tree because it doesn’t show the evolutionary relationship; instead, it is a diagram showing branches from the same distance and displaying the relationship between a group of clades; on the other hand, the phylogenetic tree is known as an evolutionary tree because it shows the evolutionary relationships and it shows the contingent association among many biological organisms which are generally based on differences, similarities and genetic material.
  2. The cladogram tree only gives some hypotheses about the actual history of evolution; on its contrary, the phylogenetic tree does not give any hypothesis, but it represents the evolutionary history at some level.
  3. The morphological characteristics of depicted organisms are the main base of the cladogram tree, while on its flip side, not only the morphological characteristics of the depicted organisms but also the genetic relationships are the basis of a phylogenetic tree.
  4. The relatedness between the group of organisms is shown by the shape of the cladogram tree; on the other hand, the length in branches in the phylogenetic tree depends on the extent of incidental evolutionary change.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that the cladogram tree is based on the suppositious diagrams, while the phylogenetic tree is created on the genetic interactions between the organisms.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White

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