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Difference Between Agglutination and Coagulation

Main Difference

The main difference between Agglutination and Coagulation is that Agglutination is commonly referred to accumulation of small particles together and this process can be carried out by many particles, whereas Coagulation is referred to the formation of clumps in the solution after reaction of the particles due to multiple plasma factors that take place in blood.

Agglutination vs. Coagulation

Agglutination is referred to as the accumulation of small particles in a solution together due to a reaction that takes place between these inner particles to form solid masses of small particles. In contrast, coagulation referred to the formation of clumps in the solution. In Agglutination, the resultants after the reaction of the components in the solution are solid masses, whereas, in the case of coagulation, the resultants are the small particles that accumulated in the form of clumps.

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Agglutination is carried out by the reaction of antigens and antibodies commonly in blood, but it can also carry out by taking the antigens and antibodies as it is an antigen-antibody reaction, but coagulation observed in the blood due to the enabling of multiple plasma factors.

Agglutination can be carried out by many particles, but coagulation is the property of clot formation in the blood or colloidal suspensions. Agglutination carried out for their use in the identification of blood groups for an individual as well as identification of the virus in the subject; however, coagulation as being the clotting of blood have their uses in the clotting of wounds after injuries in humans and other living organisms.

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Comparison Chart

AgglutinationCoagulation
Agglutination is the accumulation of small particles together to form a solid mass.Coagulation is the formation of clumps in the solution after the reaction of the particles.
End Resultants
A solid mass of small particlesFormation of clumps
Reactants
Mainly occurs between antigens and antibodiesObserved in the blood due to multiple plasma factors
Occurrence
It can occur between any particleIt occurs in blood as the formation of a clot or as colloidal suspensions
Application
Use in the identification of blood groups and viral infectionsBlood clotting

What is Agglutination?

Agglutination is the accumulation of small particles in a solution together due to a reaction that takes place between these inner particles to form solid masses of these accumulated smaller particles. Another definition for agglutination is that it is a process of clumping of particles in a solution.

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The mass of accumulated particles stays suspended or sinks to the bottom of the solution. This end product in terms of agglutination is also known as aggregate. This phenomenon observed between the particles that are already present in that solution.

In terms of biology, the formulation of aggregates of antigen and antibody complexes are one of the best examples for understanding the procedure of agglutination. This process here also helps in cross-matching blood groups as their practical use in daily routine hospitalized cases. If, by mistake, the wrong blood group given to a patient, the reaction between antigens and antibodies can lead to the formation of a clot of red blood cells and eventually leading to the death of that patient in severe conditions.

Haemagglutination is the method of accumulation of red blood cells. This is the type of agglutination where red blood cells form aggregates. It is also used for quantification of virus proportions.

Agglutination can be carried out by many particles and are not specific to only a particular type of plasma matter in the blood. Like above, agglutination has various applications in the biological field. Leukoagglutination, like haemagglutination, is the clumping of white blood cells.

The detection of pathogenic cells and their toxins is also carried out by agglutination. Antibody molecules can bind with multiple antigens, which makes it useful for application in these areas. Whenever these antigens bind with antibodies, they form antigen and antibody agglutination.

And as the toxins that are produced by pathogens antigens, thus for detection of these antigens, a suitable antibody can be used, i.e., the suitable antibody will lead to agglutination, which will lead to the identification of that pathogen.

What is Coagulation?

Coagulation referred to as the formation of blood clotting or gelling of particles. This process of coagulation takes place is carried out in colloidal suspensions. Whenever there are unstable particles present in a solution, the process of coagulation can take place. Here a substance that can cause the coagulation is known as a coagulant.

The stability in this colloidal solution is dependent upon the electrical charge that is carried out by them. The imbalances in the charges of these charged particles here lead to coagulation. When the particles accumulate due to imbalances charges, they form aggregates. These aggregates settle in a container due to gravitational force, which termed as coagulation.

In the case of blood coagulation, i.e., blood clotting, the blood clots are initiated with platelet plug formation, which is followed by intrinsic or extrinsic pathways and, in the end, a common pathway. Whenever trauma faced by endothelial cells, a chemical released in the blood vessels, which activates and aggregates platelets, whenever this trauma faced by cells alone, the release of histamine takes place with another inflammatory mediator also comes in the way, which includes serotonin, major basic proteins, prostaglandin, prostacyclin, etc. With these chemicals, the platelet plug comes formed.

Reactive extracellular matrix material triggers two chain reactions that are known as intrinsic or extrinsic pathways, which at the end, activate factor X and thus leading to the third step of the common pathway. This common pathway forms fibrin mesh, which traps blood cells and forms blood clots. This process of coagulation is certainly disturbed by major diseases like Hemophilia, which is a condition in which the body’s ability to form blood clots hindered due to the lack of the process of coagulation.

Thus leading to excessive bleeding, and thus, this blood loss also leads to myocardial infarction or strokes like devastating conditions. As seen here above in the case of Coagulation, the resultants are the small particles that accumulated, and their ultimate produce is in the form of clumps.

Key Differences

  1. Agglutination is the accumulation of small particles in a solution; on the other hand, coagulation is the formation of clumps in the solution.
  2. Agglutination usually results in solid masses when the components in the solution react with each other, on the flip side, coagulation results in the formation of clumps after the multi plasma reaction.
  3. Agglutination is carried out by the reaction of antigens and antibodies in the blood; conversely, the coagulation observed in the blood due to the enabling of multiple plasma factors.
  4. Agglutination can be carried out by as many particles, but coagulation is the property of blood for the formation of clots, or it can also take place in colloidal suspensions.
  5. Agglutination has its uses in the identification of blood groups for an individual and identification of the virus in the subject; but, coagulation seen in the clotting of wounds after injuries in humans and other living organisms.

Conclusion

Agglutination is the phenomenon that is commonly referred to accumulation of small particles together to carry out the process, whereas Coagulation is the phenomenon that is referred to the formation of clumps in the solution after reaction of the particles due to multiple plasma factors.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White

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