The main difference between mitochondria and chloroplast is that mitochondria are the organelle that is responsible for energy metabolism and cellular respiration while chloroplast is responsible for photosynthesis.
Mitochondria vs. Chloroplast
The cell is known as the structural and functional unit of life. It is further composed of different type and number of organelles according to the type of cell. Mitochondria and chloroplast are also two organelles of the cell. Mitochondria are present in all eukaryotic cells while chloroplast is present only in the cells of autotrophic or photosynthetic organisms, e.g., plants, etc. that can make their food through photosynthesis. They both have their own DNA but vary in their function. Mitochondria are involved in cellular respiration and energy metabolism while chloroplast is involved in photosynthesis.
Definition of Mitochondria?
The word mitochondrion derived from the Greek word where “mitos” stands for “thread,” and “chondrion” for, “granule” or “grain-like.” It is also known as the “power house of the cell.” It is a bean-shaped organelle whose diameter ranges from 0.75-3 μm but vary in its size. It occupies about 25% of the cell volume. A total number of mitochondria present in a cell varies according to the requirement of the cell. It may be few to thousands in number. It is a double membrane-bounded structure and its membranes are made up of lipid and protein. Its inner membrane is folded to form cristae to increase the surface area of the mitochondria, and the internal chamber is known as the matrix. It is just like a bacterial cell. It has its own circular DNA, ribosomes, and tRNA. Mitochondria consume oxygen and breakdown organic food and produce carbon dioxide and water, i.e., cellular respiration. It converts sugar (glucose) into chemical energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) which is used by other organelles of the cell to perform different functions. It also helps in cell signaling, cell growth, cell death, regulation of cell cycle and in cellular differentiation.
Definition of Chloroplast?
The chloroplast is also a double membrane-bounded structure present in green algae and plants. It is disc-like in shape and its size is around 10um and 0.5-2um in thickness. It also has two chambers, i.e., thylakoid and stroma surrounded by envelope or membranes. Thylakoids are the flattened vesicles which arrange themselves in the form of a pile known as a granum. About 40 thylakoids pile to form a granum. On the layers of thylakoid chlorophyll molecules or pigments are arranged so, granum appears green. All the granums are interconnected by anon green part non as intergranum. While stroma is the fluid which surrounds the thylakoids, it contains ribosomes, some proteins, and a small circular DNA. Carbon dioxide is fixed in stroma while; sunlight is trapped in the membranes of grana to produce food and get energy in the form of ATP through photosynthesis.
- The power house of the cell that is involved in cellular respiration is known as mitochondria while the organelle of the cell that is involved in photosynthesis is known as a chloroplast.
- Mitochondria are present in all aerobic eukaryotic cells whereas chloroplast is not present in all eukaryotic cells, it is present in plant and algal cells, etc. that are involved in photosynthesis.
- Mitochondria are usually colorless while chloroplast is usually green in color.
- Mitochondria are bean-like in shape, but chloroplast is disc-like in shape.
- There are foldings in the inner membrane of mitochondria form cristae while foldings in the inner membrane of chloroplast form stromules.
- Mitochondria have two compartments, e., cristae, and the matrix while compartments of the chloroplast are thylakoids and stroma.
- There are no pigments in mitochondria whereas pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoids etc. are present in the chloroplast.
- Mitochondria consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide during its functioning, e., aerobic respiration while chloroplast release oxygen and use carbon dioxide during its functioning, i.e., photosynthesis.
- Mitochondria convert to sugar in chemical energy in the form of ATP to provide energy to the cell but chloroplast stores solar energy in the bonds of glucose through photosynthesis.
- Mitochondria is a site for many reactions like photorespiration, oxidative phosphorylation, and beta-oxidation, etc. while chloroplast is the site for photosynthesis and photorespiration.
From the above discussion, it is concluded that Mitochondria is a double membrane-bounded, self-replicating organelle present in all eukaryotic organisms that show aerobic respiration. It consumes oxygen and produces ATP by the breakdown of food or sugar. While, Chloroplast is also a double membrane-bounded, self-replicating organelle that is present in autotrophs like plants and algae, etc. that make their food through photosynthesis. It captures solar energy to make food through photosynthesis and produce ATP in this process that is used by the cell.