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Difference Between Introns and Exons

Main Difference

The main difference between Introns and Exons is that the Introns is the genetic codes that remain inside the nucleus to keep the DNA safe in genes, whereas Exons are the genetic codes that may leave the nucleus to complete the process of translation to synthesize proteins.

Introns vs. Exons

Introns are always found inside the nucleus; on the other hand, exons are located both inside and outside the nucleus. Introns are the parts of DNA that are not involved in the sequencing of amino acids in the coding region; on the flip side, exons are the part of DNA that are included in the sequencing of amino acids in the coding region. Introns are related to the non-coding area of DNA; on the opposite side, extrons are associated with the coding part of DNA. Introns are known as the bases between two exons; on the flip side, exons are known as the bases that encode the sequencing of amino acid into proteins.

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Introns are present only in eukaryotes; on the opposite side, exons are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Introns always stay inside the nucleus; on the other side of the coin, exons can move from core to cytoplasm. There is less sequence conservation in introns as compared to exons; on the other hand, there is very high sequence conservation in exons as compared to introns.

Introns are present only in the primary transcript of DNA and mRNA; on the flip side, exons are present in both RNA and DNA. The function of introns is that it is related to the substantial fraction of DNA; on the other hand, the purpose of exons is that it is involved in the translation of proteins.

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Comparison Chart

IntronsExons
Introns are the parts of DNA that are not involved in the sequencing of amino acids in the coding regionExons are the part of DNA that are included in the sequencing of amino acids in the coding region
Coding DNA
It is related to non-coding DNAIt is connected to coding DNA
Transcription
It is considered as bases between two exonsExons are the bases that encode a sequence of amino acid of the protein
Presence
It is found only in eukaryotesIt is located in eukaryotes and prokaryotes
Sequence Conservation
Its sequence is less conservedIts sequences are highly conserved
Presence in Genome
It is found in the primary transcript of DNA and RNAIt is located in both DNA and RNA
Functions
It is considered as the substantial fraction of DNAIt is used in the translation of amino acid into proteins.
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What are Introns?

Introns are the parts of DNA that do not involve in the encoding process of amino acid sequences in the coding region. It is the sequence of nucleotides that includes in interruption of gene sequencing. The word is the Greek word meaning ‘inside the nucleus.’ It indicates that introns always functional inside the nucleus and cannot be transported outside the core where they are non-functional. It is always present inside the nucleus of the eukaryotes only.

Its function is not known entirely, but it is considered a substantial part of the DNA. Its primary purpose is to keep the DNA genome that is present inside the nucleus. It is just the bases that are present in between the exons. In genomes, it is present as the primary transcript of DNA and mRNA. The amino acid sequence conservation is very less in the introns.

Introns are the genetic codes that are involved in the transcription and translation processes for the synthesis of proteins. Introns are very common in the higher vertebrates such as mice and human beings but less common in other varieties of microorganisms. The introns are the types of bases that are present in between the exons in the genomes of DNA.

What are Exons?

Exons are the parts of DNA that involve in the encoding process of amino acid sequences in the coding region. It is the sequence of nucleotides that are included in the translation process. The word exon means outside the nucleus. It implies that exons are not only functional inside the nucleus but also functional outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm; that’s why it can be transported outside the nucleus. It can also found both outside and inside the nucleus.

Its primary function is to start or complete the process of translation for the synthesis of proteins. It also involves the protection of DNA outside the nucleus as well. It is related to the coding region of the DNA. It causes the encoding of the sequence of the amino acids. It is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It is found in both the DNA and mRNA.

Key Differences

  1. Introns are related to the non-coding region of DNA; on the other hand, exons are associated with the coding part of DNA.
  2. Introns are the parts of DNA that do not involve in the encoding process of amino acid sequences in the coding region; on the flip side, exons are the parts of DNA that participate in the encoding process of amino acid sequences in the coding region.
  3. In the transcription process, introns are bases present between two exons; on the opposite side, exons are the bases that involves the amino acid sequencing in the coding region.
  4. Introns are always present inside the nucleus; on the other side of the coin, exons are also present inside the core and can transport outside to the cytoplasm and involves in the translation process.
  5. Introns include the very less sequence conservation; on the other hand, exons include the very high sequence conservation.
  6. The function of introns is considered that it is a substantial part of the DNA; on the other hand, the purpose of exons is the translation of DNA into proteins.
  7. Introns are mainly present in the DNA and mRNA primary transcript; on the flip side, exons are primarily present in both mRNA and DNA.
  8. Introns are present in the eukaryotes only; on the other side of the coin, exons are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that both Introns and Exons are genetic codes. Introns are always found inside the nucleus, whereas the Exons can be transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White