Biology

Difference Between Monogastric Digestive System and Ruminant Digestive System

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Main Difference

The main difference between Monogastric Digestive System and Ruminant Digestive System is that Monogastric Digestive System’s digestion takes place in the stomach, whereas Ruminant Digestive System digestion takes place in the rumen.

Monogastric Digestive System vs. Ruminant Digestive System

The monogastric digestive system is considered as the organ system in which the digestion of both plants and animals takes place, whereas the ruminant digestive system is considered as the organ system in which the plant digestion primarily takes place. The monogastric digestive system mainly present in carnivores who eat animal material and in omnivores who eat both plants and animals, while on its contrary, the ruminant digestive system is present only in herbivores.

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The monogastric digestive system is modified to digest materials of both plants and animals; on the flip side, the ruminant digestive system is adjusted to digesting only plant ingredients. The length of the monogastric digestive system is short, while the length of the ruminant digestive system is relatively long.

The enzymes are secreted in the monogastric digestive system to digest proteins; on the contrary, enzymes are lack in the ruminant digestive system to digest any protein. Four, piercing canines are present in the monogastric digestive system, whereas two, dull canines are present in the ruminant digestive system. In the monogastric digestive system, the premolars and molars move in the perpendicular direction; on the other hand, in the ruminant digestive system, the premolars and molars move in the adjacent direction.

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The monogastric digestive system of humans produces saliva of about 1-1.5 liters per day. In contrast, on its flip side, the ruminant digestive system of cow produces saliva of approximately 65 liters per day. The monogastric digestive does not contain any regurgitation, whereas the ruminant digestive system consists of regurgitation during the process of digestion.

Comparison Chart

Monogastric Digestive SystemRuminant Digestive System
A digestive system that contains a single partition stomach, which mainly helps in the process of digestion, is known as a monogastric digestive system.A digestive system that consists of a multi-section stomach that primarily helps in the process of digestion is known as the ruminant digestive system.
Considered As
The organ system in which the digestion of both plants and animals take placeThe organ system in which the plant digestion primarily takes place
Type of Animals
Mainly present in carnivores who eat animal material and in omnivores who eat both plants and animalsPresent only in herbivores
Type of Diet
Modified to digest materials of both plants and animalsAdjusted to digest only plant ingredients
Length
ShortLong
Enzymes to Digest Proteins
The enzymes are secreted to digest proteinsLack of enzymes to digest any protein
Canines
Four, sharp canines are presentTwo, blunt canines are present
Premolars and Molars
The premolars and molars move in the upright directionThe premolars and molars move in the adjacent direction
Saliva
Humans produce saliva of about 1-1.5 liters per dayThe cow produces saliva of approximately 65 liters per day
Digestive Enzymes in Saliva
The saliva contains carbohydrate digestive enzymesThe saliva does not consist of digestive enzymes
Regurgitation
Does not contain any regurgitationConsist of regurgitation during the process of digestion
Rumen/ Stomach
Consist of a simple stomachConsist of a complex rumen
Number of Stomach Compartments
A single compartment stomachFour compartment stomach
Liver
About 1.5 kg liver weighsThe liver of cows weigh more than human liver
Length of the Small Intestine
Humans small intestine is 6.1 m longCows small intestine is 46 m long
Length of the Colon
The human colon is 5-6 m longCow colon is 11 m long
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What is Monogastric Digestive System?

The digestive system, which aids in the digestion of both plant and animal constituents, is known as the Monogastric digestive system. The digestive system is called ‘Monogastric’ as it contains only one stomach. The Monogastric digestive system is present in horse, swine, human, fowl, dog, and rabbit-like animals.

The monogastric digestive system is made up of the esophagus, mouth, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, and anus. The digestion process starts mechanically and chemically when food enters the mouth. The saliva consists of enzymes known as carbohydrate digestive enzymes to digest carbohydrates. The esophagus is the path that guides the food towards the stomach.

Animals having a monogastric digestive system eat animal tissues as their food. The monogastric digestive system is modified to digest the materials of both plants and animals. Hence, their diet is relatively easy to digest, and a single compartment stomach is sufficient for this purpose.

What is the Ruminant Digestive System?

The digestive system, which is considered to a specific organ system in which the digestion plant constituents mainly happen, is known as the ruminant digestive system. This digestive system is present in cattle, cow, sheep, deer, and goat.

The ruminant animals contain top jaws that do not have teeth in front, but as a substitute, a tough layer of skin is present, which is called a dental pad. The ruminant digestive system consists of four partitioned stomachs. There is a present omasum, rumen, reticulum, and abomasum. The first three parts of the stomach, which consist of the reticulum rumen, and omasum, are involved in the digestion of plant fibers.

Mostly the microflora is involved in the ruminant digestive system in which they break down cellulose by fermentation, forming unstable fatty acids, for instance, butyrate, acetate, and propionate. The unstable fatty acids are digested by the cow as a source of nutrition.

In the fourth part of the stomach, known as abomasum, the digestive enzymes are secreted. That is why in ruminant animals, the fermentation happens before the digestion of food, so this procedure is known as foregut fermentation.

Moreover, the ruminant digestive system partly digests the food and then cud the food by recurring it from the first part of the stomach. In addition to the small and large intestines, the ruminant digestive system contains a large caecum for further digesting the plant fibers.

Key Differences

  1. The monogastric digestive system is known as a system that consists of a single partitioned stomach, which primarily helps in the process of digestion; on the other hand, the ruminant digestive system is known as a digestive system that consists of the multi partitioned compartment which relatively helps in the digestion process.
  2. The monogastric digestive system is a single-chambered stomach, while the ruminant digestive system is a four-chambered stomach.
  3. The organ system which digests both plants and animals is present in the monogastric digestive system; on the contrary, the organ system which digests only plants is present in the ruminant digestive system.
  4. Carnivores who eat only animals and omnivores who eat both plants and animals primarily consist of the monogastric digestive system; on its flip side, the ruminant digestive system is only present in herbivores who eat only plants.
  5. The process of regurgitation does not occur in the monogastric digestive system, whereas the regurgitation process occurs in the ruminant digestive system and ingests the food during digestion.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that the monogastric digestive system contains a single compartment stomach and eats material of both plants and animals. In contrast, the ruminant digestive system consists of a complex four-compartment stomach and eats only herbivores.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White

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