In our body there are two type glands exocrine and endocrine glands. They produce two different type of chemical compounds called hormones and enzymes. An extremely discriminating catalyst that manage the rate and specificity of a metabolic reaction in a body is called enzymes while on the other hand hormones are chemical produced by the gland or a cell in one part of the body to perform the function that sends message to other part of body.
What is Hormones?
Body most basic functions are regulated by the endocrine system. The endocrine glands produce Hormones. They are produced by the specialized glands. There are eight different types of glands. The endocrine system constantly secrete liquid chemical messenger called hormones. These hormones also manage growth and development, metabolism, reproduction as well as mood. They can chemically be made up of lipid or protein. The endocrine hormones like reproductive- estrogen or testosterone are lipid in structure while there may be protein like insulin. One example is insulin which is produced by the pancreas. The insulin is directly secreted into the blood. It is produced when level of glucose is too high in blood. The insulin is responsible for the uptake of glucose by the cell. In this way the amount of blood sugar is stabilized and also maintains adequate energy in a cell. In short, there are key to specific tissues, and once recognized they signal the tissue to perform the task.
What is Enzymes?
Enzymes are proteins that produced by any living organism. They are termed as biological catalyst. It means that they can speed up a chemical reaction. They are broadly produced by exocrine glands and their main function includes digestion. In digestion they help to breakdown the large molecules that are in food like carbohydrate, fat and proteins into a smaller molecule, easy to be absorbed by the villi, like sugars, amino acid and fatty acids. They also convert the molecule to energy that we require. For example an enzyme named amylase is responsible to break carbohydrate into glucose. Enzymes are also used in brewing and making cheese. It follows a lock- key hypothesis. Enzymes works using complimentary shapes-that means two shapes that fits together. An enzyme has an active site which fits to the substrate and forms the product. However, the main point is that the shape or structure of an enzyme does not change at the end of the reaction.
- Enzyme act at the same place as origin while hormones travel from one place to another via blood.
- Enzymes are biological catalyst while hormones are not.
- All enzymes are protein in nature while hormones can be polypeptides, steroids, terpenoid or amines.
- Enzymes can be reused in a chemical reaction while hormones cannot
- Enzymes do not change at the end of the reaction while hormones participate in a reaction changing its form.
- Enzymes have large molecular weight while hormones have less molecular weight.
- Enzymes are not diffusible through cell membrane while hormones are.
- Enzyme work inter-cellular or carried by duct while hormones are ductless and are carried via blood.
- Enzymes are quick and short acting whole hormones are fast and long acting.
- Enzyme catalyzes reversible reaction while a hormone does not.
- At the end of reaction enzyme does not change while hormones takes part in a reaction and have irreversible changes.