Physics

Difference Between Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism and Ferromagnetism

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Main Difference

The main difference between Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, and Ferromagnetism is that Diamagnetism produces in resistance to the external magnetic field and goes when the external field is removed, whereas Paramagnetism occurs in the direction of an external magnetic field and disappears when the external magnetic field is removed, while Ferromagnetism occurs in the direction of an external magnetic field and can continue to exist when the external magnetic field is removed.

Diamagnetism vs. Paramagnetism vs. Ferromagnetism

In the diamagnetism, the diamagnetic materials consist of single atoms which do not have a net magnetic moment; on the other hand, in paramagnetism, the paramagnetic materials consist of atoms, and each atom has its magnetic moment; on the contrary, in ferromagnetism, the ferromagnetic materials consist of atoms which also have their magnetic moment.

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Diamagnetic materials in diamagnetism bring into line their magnetic fields in the opposite direction to the external magnetic fields; on the flip side, paramagnetic materials in paramagnetism line up their magnetic fields in the same direction as the external magnetic fields; on the contrary, ferromagnetic materials in ferromagnetism make parallel their magnetic fields in the equivalent direction as in the direction of external magnetic fields.

Diamagnetic materials misplace their magnetization in diamagnetism when the external magnetic field is removed; on the other hand, paramagnetic materials also lose their magnetization when the external magnetic field is removed; on the flip side, ferromagnetic materials can maintain their magnetization even when the external magnetic field is removed.

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The diamagnetic materials do not get attracted to external magnetic fields, while paramagnetic materials weakly attracted to external magnetic fields, whereas ferromagnetic materials strongly get attracted to external magnetic fields. The diamagnetic materials have no unpaired electrons in atoms or ions; on the other hand, paramagnetic materials have unpaired electrons in the atoms or ions, while in ferromagnetic materials, it has many unpaired electrons in the atoms or ions.

The diamagnetic materials can easily be separated from many other materials since they consist of repulsions to magnetic fields, while paramagnetic materials separated by using high-intensity magnetic separators, whereas ferromagnetic materials can be separated by using low-intensity magnetic separators.

Comparison Chart

DiamagnetismParamagnetismFerromagnetism
The process in which diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field is diamagnetism.The process in which paramagnetic materials are weakly attracted by a magnetic field is paramagnetism.The process by which many materials produce permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets is the ferromagnetism.
Magnetic Moments of Individual Atoms
The diamagnetic materials consist of single atoms which do not have a net magnetic momentThe paramagnetic materials consist of atoms, and each atom have its magnetic momentThe ferromagnetic materials consist of atoms which also have their magnetic moment
Behavior in External Magnetic Fields
Diamagnetic materials bring into line their magnetic fields in the opposite direction to the external magnetic fieldsParamagnetic materials line up their magnetic fields in the same direction as the external magnetic fieldsFerromagnetic materials make parallel their magnetic fields in the same direction as the direction of external magnetic fields.
Retention of Magnetism
Diamagnetic materials misplace their magnetization when the external magnetic field is removedParamagnetic materials also lose their magnetization when the external magnetic field is removedFerromagnetic materials can maintain their magnetization even when the external magnetic field is removed
Magnetic Properties
The diamagnetic materials do not get attracted to external magnetic fieldsParamagnetic materials weakly attracted to external magnetic fieldsFerromagnetic materials strongly get attracted to external magnetic fields
Unpaired Electrons
The diamagnetic materials have no unpaired electrons in atoms or ionsParamagnetic materials have unpaired electrons in the atoms or ionsFerromagnetic materials have many unpaired electrons in the atoms or ions
Separation
The diamagnetic materials can easily be separated from many other materials since they consist of repulsions to magnetic fieldsParamagnetic materials separated by using high-intensity magnetic separatorsFerromagnetic materials can be separated by using low-intensity magnetic separators

What is Diamagnetism?

Diamagnetism is considered as the weakest magnet of all the three types of magnetism. All materials on earth are diamagnetic. The diamagnetic materials do not have a magnetic attraction towards other materials.

In the materials of diamagnetism, the magnetic moments of each of the separate electrons in the specific material are canceled out. Whenever a diamagnetic material is put under an external magnetic field, the material forms a specific magnetic field that competes with the external magnetic field, and as a result, the diamagnetic materials get repelled by the external magnetic field.

What is Paramagnetism?

In paramagnetism, the paramagnetic materials have atoms that consist of unpaired electrons, and the magnetic moments of each of the separated electrons cannot completely cancel out, so as a result, the atoms are left with a resultant magnetic field.

In some cases, the magnetic moments of atoms are associated in random directions, so the paramagnetic material as a whole does not display magnetism. Though, if materials are placed in the external magnetic field, then the magnetic moments of distinct atoms can be associated with the external magnetic field and causing the paramagnetic material to become magnetized.

The magnetic field formed by the paramagnetic materials is directing in the same direction as in the direction of the external magnetic field. So if the external magnetic field is switched off, then the paramagnetic material will lose its magnetization. Some examples of paramagnetism are hematite, chalcopyrite, garnet, and Ilmenite.

What is Ferromagnetism?

The ferromagnetic materials of ferromagnetism have unpaired electrons present in their atoms, so each atom has a clear magnetic moment. The magnetic moments of adjacent atoms incline to become associated and creating different regions in the materials known as domains. Though, many different domains may have their magnetic moments directing in different directions.

Whenever a ferromagnetic material is generally placed inside an external magnetic field, the many different domains present inside the magnetic fields become all align with the external magnetic fields. Some ferromagnetic materials are cobalt, nickel, iron, and their alloys.

Key Differences

  1. The materials which are not attracted by external magnetic fields are diamagnetic, whereas the materials which have a weak attraction towards magnetic fields are paramagnetic, while the materials which are strongly attracted by external magnetic fields are ferromagnetic.
  2. Each atom of diamagnetic materials has a net magnetic moment; on the other hand, each atom of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials have their magnetic moment.
  3. The magnetization of diamagnetic materials when the external magnetic field is removed; on the other hand, paramagnetism also lose their magnetization when the external magnetic field is removed, while the material of ferromagnetism can keep their magnetization when the external magnetic field is removed.
  4. The materials of diamagnetism can be easily separated from other materials because they have repulsions to magnetic fields; on the other hand, paramagnetic materials can be separated by using high-intensity separators; on the contrary, the materials of ferromagnetism can be separated by using low-intensity magnetic separators.
  5. The diamagnetic materials have no unpaired electrons, while paramagnetic materials have unpaired electrons, whereas ferromagnetic materials consist of many unpaired electrons.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that the diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism have differences, and the main difference between these is that the diamagnetism of some materials do not have a magnetic attraction, whereas paramagnetism of some materials have a weak magnetic attraction, while ferromagnetism of some materials has a strong magnetic attraction.

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Harlon Moss

Harlon currently works as a quality moderator and content writer for Difference Wiki. He graduated from the University of California in 2010 with a degree in Computer Science. Follow him on Twitter @HarlonMoss