Difference WikiChemistry

Difference Between Bond Pair and Lone Pair

Main Difference

The main difference between Bond Pair and Lone Pair is that Bond Pair is attracted by two nuclei of the atoms, whereas the Lone Pair is attracted by only one nucleus of the atom.

Bond Pair vs. Lone Pair

Bond pairs generally consider the pair of electrons that are present in a bond, while the lone pair consider as the electron pairs that are usually not bonded. Bond pair is always present in the form of bonds, whereas lone pair is usually not present in bonds but could produce bonds through donating the lone pair to the atoms and produces coordination bonds. The bond pair consists of two electrons, which generally belong to the two atoms; on the other hand, the lone pair consists of two electrons that normally belong to the same atom.

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Because of the sharing of two electrons through the two atoms, the bond pair is formed; on the other hand, due to the nonexistence of empty orbitals in atoms, the lone pair is formed. Bond pair uses less space because its bonding pairs are formed in a place where its electron clouds could not spread over a large volume; on the flip side, the electrons present in lone pair take up more space by spreading its electron cloud over a large surface area occupying more volume.

A part of sigma bond is bond pair which reside it in the place far away from the central atom which results in lesser repulsion power between electron; conversely, the lone pair which is negatively charged is generally drawn close by the central positively charged atom which creates more repulsion power in lone pair. Bond pair is involved in bond formation, while lone pair is generally not involved in bonding formation, so can also say that lone pair is known as no-bonding pair.

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Comparison Chart

Bond PairLone Pair
Bond pair refers to the pair of electrons that are present in a bond.Lone pair refers to the electron pairs that are usually not bonded with another atom.
Bonding
Always present in the form of bonds.Usually not present in bonds but could produce bonds through donating the lone pair to the atoms and produces coordination bonds.
Atoms
Consists of two electrons which generally belong to the two atomsConsists of two electrons which normally belong to the same atom
Origin
Because of the sharing of two electrons through the two atomsBecause of the absence of empty orbitals in atoms
Consider As
Consider the pair of electrons that are present in a bond.Consider the electron pairs that are usually not bonded.
Occupies Space
It uses less space because its bonding pairs are formed in a place where its electron clouds could not spread over a large volume.The electrons take up more space by spreading its electron cloud over a large surface area occupying more volume.
Location
A part of sigma bond which resides it in the place far away from the central atomIs usually negatively charged generally drawn close by the central positively charged atom
Repulsion Power
Lesser repulsion powerGreater repulsion power
Involved In
It involved in bond formation.Generally, not involved in bonding formation, so can also say that lone pair is known as no-bonding pair.
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What is Bond Pair?

Bond pair is a term that describes as the bond pair is always present in the form of bonds. A single bond pair is usually composed of two electrons of atoms that paired with each other, and these two paired electrons are together known as bond pairs. Bond pair uses less space because its bonding pairs are formed in a place where its electron clouds could not spread over a large volume.

A part of the sigma bond is bond pair which reside in the place far away from the central atom, which results in lesser repulsion power between electron. Bond pairs can be found in coordination compounds and covalent compounds. In covalent compounds, generally, the covalent bond is formed of a bond pair, and in coordination compounds, the coordination bond is usually formed of a bond pair.

Consider the example of NH3 and BF3 in which electron pairs of N atom are denoted to B atom of generally BF3 molecule. Afterward, the coordination bond is also known as a covalent bond, and the electron pair now consider as a bond pair.

Types of Bond Pair

  • Coordination Compounds: In this compound, the ligand which is present generally donate their pair of lone electrons to the central metal atom. The lone pairs which produce the coordination bonds are similar to the covalent bond between two atoms after the donation of electrons, and this is due to the bond pair, which consists of two electrons that generally belong to the two atoms.
  • Covalent Compounds: In this compound, the different two atoms which are present share their unpaired electrons to form their shared pair electrons with other atoms. This process of sharing of electrons to form bonds is known as bond pair. There are present bond pairs for each bond if there are present double or triple bonds. If there is present a double bond, then it means there are present two bond pairs. However, a covalent bond is produced by the hybridization of orbitals of two atoms, that bond-pair exists in the hybridized orbitals. The hybridized orbitals of two atoms can produce either pi bonds and sigma bonds. So it means bond pairs could be observed and consider as pi bonds and sigma bonds.

What is Lone Pair?

The term lone pair can describe as the electron pairs that are usually not bonded. The lone pair consists of two electrons that normally belong to the same atom. Lone pair is generally not involved in bonding formation, so can also say that lone pair is known as no-bonding electron pair.

Though, the electrons which are present in the innermost shell of the atom are also combined and do not participate in bond formation as they are not considered as the lone pairs. But because of the absence of empty orbitals in atoms, the lone pair is formed. Therefore, the valence electrons that are present in an atom in the combined form are considered as lone pairs.

Sometimes coordination bond is produced in lone pairs, which are then not considered as lone pairs due to the production of the bond by donated to another atom that consists of empty orbitals. Various elements have only one lone pair, but many consists of more than one lone pair. For instance, the nitrogen atom can produce a maximum of three covalent bonds.

Lone pairs could also alter the angle of bonds in a molecule. E.g., when a linear molecule is present having two bonds and form of a central atom, the molecules will stay as a linear molecule if there are presently no lone pairs.

However, if there is found one or more lone pairs in the central atom, then it will no longer be a linear molecule. The bond pairs in lone pairs could be repelled because of the repulsion caused by lone pairs, which then cause the molecules to convert into angular as a replacement for linear.

Key Differences

  1. Because of the distribution of two electrons through the two atoms, the bond pair is formed; on the other hand, because of the absence of empty orbitals in atoms, the lone pair is formed.
  2. Bond pair deliberate as the pair of electrons that are usually existing in a bond, while lone pair deliberate as the electron pairs that are usually not joined.
  3. Bond pair is continuously existing in the method of bonds, whereas lone pair could form bonds through contributing the lone pair but usually not present in bonds.
  4. The bond pair generally fit into the two atoms and contains two electrons; on the other hand, the lone pair have normally its place to the same atom and contains two electrons.
  5. Bond pair uses not as much of space because its connecting sets are produced in a place where its electron clouds could not extend over a great size; on the flip side, the electrons existing in lone pair consist of more space by scattering its electron cloud over a great external area inhabiting more volume.
  6. Bond pair is the part of a sigma bond is which exist in it in the place distant from the central atom which consequences in smaller revulsion power between electron; conversely, the negatively charged lone pair which is normally pulled nearby the dominant positively charged atom which generates more repulsion power in lone pair.
  7. Bond pair is intricate in bond formation, while the lone pair is also known as no-bonding pair because it is generally not involved in bonding formation.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that the bond pair is involved in bond formation and occupies lesser space and has small repulsion power, while lone pair is generally not involved in bonding formation, so can also say that lone pair is known as no-bonding pair and occupy more space and have greater repulsion power.

Harlon Moss

Harlon currently works as a quality moderator and content writer for Difference Wiki. He graduated from the University of California in 2010 with a degree in Computer Science. Follow him on Twitter @HarlonMoss