Biology

Difference Between Thermophilic Bacteria and Mesophilic Bacteria

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Main Difference

The main difference between Thermophilic Bacteria and Mesophilic Bacteria is that Thermophilic Bacteria survive and usually live at relatively high temperatures, whereas Mesophilic Bacteria survive and live in low and moderate temperatures.

Thermophilic Bacteria vs. Mesophilic Bacteria

Thermophilic bacteria are considered as the kind of extremophiles which grow well at comparatively high temperatures. On the other hand, the mesophilic bacteria are considered as the type of bacteria that thrives neatly at low and moderate temperatures. The temperature at which thermophilic bacteria thrive is at 45-122 °C; on the contrary, the moderate temperature at which mesophilic bacteria grow well is at 20-45 °C.

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50 °C is known as the optimum temperature for the thermophilic bacteria; on the flip side, 37 °C is known to be the optimum temperature for the mesophilic bacteria. The enzymes which are released by the thermophilic bacteria are usually functional at high temperatures; in contrast to thermophilic bacteria, the mesophilic bacteria do not release enzymes that are operational at high temperatures; instead, they release enzymes which are only functional at low temperature.

The thermophilic bacteria usually cannot grow at body temperatures, so they are not considered as pathogens; on the other hand, the mesophilic bacteria are known as pathogens because they can grow at body temperatures. The application of thermophilic bacteria generally is that it forms the heat-stable DNA polymerases, which are then being used in PCR; on the flip side, the primary application of mesophilic bacteria is that they are mostly used in the formation of yogurt, beer, cheese, and wine.

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Some examples of thermophilic bacteria are Synechococcus, Thermococcus litoralis, Hermus aquaticus, Calothrix, etc.; on the contrary, some general examples of mesophilic bacteria are Streptococcus pyrogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus auresu, etc.

Comparison Chart

Thermophilic BacteriaMesophilic Bacteria
An organism that is known as the type of extremophile in general lives at high temperatures is called the thermophilic bacteria.An organism that propagates well at such temperature, which is never too hot or nor too cold, is called the mesophilic bacteria.
Considered As
Considered as the kind of extremophiles which grow well at comparatively high temperaturesConsidered as the type of bacteria that thrives neatly at low and moderate temperatures
Growth Temperature
The temperature at which thermophilic bacteria thrive is 45-122 °C.The moderate temperature at which mesophilic bacteria grow well is at 20-45 °C.
Optimum Temperature
50 °C is known as the optimum temperature37 °C is known to be the optimum temperature for the mesophilic bacteria
Enzymes
The enzymes which released are usually functional at high temperatures.Do not release enzymes which are operational at high temperatures; rather they release enzymes which are only functional at low temperature.
Pathogens
Usually cannot grow at body temperatures, so they are not considered as pathogens.Are known as pathogens because they can grow at body temperatures.
Aplications/ Uses
The application generally is that it forms the heat-stable DNA polymerases, which are then being used in PCR.The primary application is that they are mostly used in the formation of yogurt, beer, cheese, and wine.
Examples
Some leading examples of thermophilic bacteria are Synechococcus, Thermococcus litoralis, Hermus aquaticus, Calothrix, etc.Very general examples of mesophilic bacteria are Streptococcus pyrogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus auresu, etc.
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What are Thermophilic Bacteria?

The bacteria which grow well comparatively at a high temperature, which is nearly equal to 45-122 °C, is known as the thermophilic bacteria. The habitat of thermophilic bacteria is usually a variety of oceans, marine, and some terrestrial habitats. Some living spots of thermophilic bacteria are also the hot springs that are present in deep-sea hydrothermal vents, Yellowstone National Park, and decomposing plant material, for example, fertilizer marshlands and manure.

The thermophilic bacteria contain many molecular and some biochemical approaches to overcome the damaging effects of the very high temperature. 50 °C is known as the optimum temperature for the thermophilic bacteria. The thermophilic bacteria usually cannot grow at body temperatures, so they are not considered as pathogens.

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The application of thermophilic bacteria generally is that it forms the heat-stable DNA polymerases, which are then being used in PCR. Some examples of thermophilic bacteria are Synechococcus, Thermococcus litoralis, Hermus aquaticus, Calothrix, etc.

What are Mesophilic Bacteria?

The bacteria which grow well only at moderate temperatures or at a temperature, which not too cold or nor too hot, nearly at 20-45 °C, is known as the mesophilic bacteria. 37 °C is known to be the optimum temperature for the mesophilic bacteria, which is the optimum body temperature of humans. The mesophilic bacteria are more sensitive to changes occur in their temperate, as they cannot synthesize protein at very low temperature.

The mesophilic bacteria are known as pathogens because they can grow at body temperatures, so the bacteria which is present in the human microbiome, and along with that, the human pathogenic bacteria are known as mesophiles. The mesophilic bacteria do not release enzymes which are operational at high temperatures; instead, they release enzymes which are only functional at low temperature.

The most crucial application of mesophilic bacteria is that they are mostly used in the formation of yogurt, in the fermentation of beer, and wine, cheese, and as well as these are also the habitats of mesophilic bacteria. Some general examples of mesophilic bacteria are Streptococcus pyrogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus auresu, etc.

Key Differences

  1. The primary type of extremophiles that prosper and grow well at relatively high temperatures is known as the thermophilic bacteria; on the contrary, referred to as a type of bacteria that thrives and grows well at nearly moderate temperatures and low temperatures is known as the mesophilic bacteria.
  2. The optimum temperature for the growth of the thermophilic bacteria is considered as the 50 °C; on the flip side of the thermophilic bacteria, the optimum temperature for the thriving of the mesophilic bacteria is approximately is the 37 °C which is the optimum body temperature of humans.
  3. 45-122 °C is considered as the growth temperature for the thermophilic bacteria in which they thrive; at the same time, the growth temperature for mesophilic bacteria are considered as the 20-45 °C in which they grow well and is known as the moderate temperature for their growth.
  4. The thermophilic bacteria consist of specific enzymes which only become functional at high temperatures; on the flip side, the mesophilic bacteria do not release any such enzymes which are functional at high temperature, while they only release enzymes which are operational at moderate temperature.
  5. The formation of heat-stable DNA polymerases which are useful in the process of PCR is the main application of thermophilic bacteria, in contrast to that, the formation of yogurt, cheese, wine, and beer is the main application of mesophilic bacteria.
  6. The thermophilic bacteria are not considered pathogens because they cannot grow at body temperatures of humans. In contrast, the mesophilic bacteria are considered pathogens because they can grow at body temperatures of humans.
  7. Some examples of thermophilic bacteria are Synechococcus, Thermococcus litoralis, Hermus aquaticus, Calothrix; on the contrary, some general examples of mesophilic bacteria are Streptococcus pyrogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus auresu, etc.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that the thermophilic bacteria needs high temperature for their survival; in contrast, the mesophilic bacteria requires moderate temperature for their growth.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White

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