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Difference Between Bacterial Cell and Animal Cell

Main Difference

The main difference between Bacterial Cell and Animal Cell is that the Bacterial Cell is the prokaryotic cell that does not contain any membrane-bounded organelles, whereas the Animal Cell is the eukaryotic cell that contains the membrane-bounded organelles.

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Bacterial Cell vs. Animal Cell

The bacterial cell contains several cellular contents that are openly present in the cytoplasm; on the other hand, the animal cell contains the cellular content in the membrane-bounded organelles. The bacterial cell contains no nuclear membrane around the nuclear contents; on the flip side, the animal cell contains the nuclear envelope around the nuclear contents. The bacterial cell includes in the prokaryotic type of cells, whereas the animal cell includes in the eukaryotic type of cells.

The bacterial cell contains a cell wall that is made of murein; on the other hand, the animal cell does not contain the cell wall. The bacterial cell contains the regular shapes due to the cell wall; on the flip side, the animal cell contains no regular shape due to the absence of the cell wall. Mitochondria is absent in the bacterial cell; on the other hand, mitochondria of various amounts are present in the animal cell.

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There are small size ribosomes present in the bacterial cell, whereas the large size ribosomes are present in the animal cells. Bacterial cells mainly divide into daughter cells by binary fission; on the flip side, the animal cell mainly divides into daughter cells by mitosis and meiosis.

In bacterial cells, reproduction occurs by asexual means, on the other hand, in animal cells, reproduction occurs by both sexual and asexual means. The bacterial cell is the cell that may be autotroph or heterotroph, whereas the animal cell is the cell that is the only heterotroph.

Comparison Chart

Bacterial CellAnimal Cell
The bacterial cell is the prokaryotic cellAn animal cell is a eukaryotic cell
Membrane Bounded Organelles
Absent in itPresent in it
Cellular Contents
Freely present in the cytoplasmPresent in the membrane-bounded organelles
Nuclear Membrane
In it, the nuclear membrane is absentIn it, the nuclear membrane is present
Size of Ribosomes
It contains the small size of ribosomesIt contains the large size of ribosomes
Cell Wall
Contains cell wall that is made of mureinDoes not contain a cell wall
Cell Shape
It contains regular shapes like bacillus, etc.It does not contain regular shapes due to the absence of a cell wall.
Mitochondria
It contains no mitochondriaIt contains mitochondria
Centrioles
It contains no centriolesIt contains centrioles
Reproduction
It reproduces by the asexual means of binary fissionIt reproduces by both sexual meiosis and asexual mitosis methods
Food Dependent
It is maybe autotroph or heterotrophIt is the only heterotroph
Size
Its size ranges from 0.2 to 2 micrometersIts size ranges from 10 to 100 micrometers
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What is Bacterial Cell?

Bacterial Cell is the prokaryotic cell that does not contain any membrane-bounded organelles. The cell membrane covers the bacterial cell. The cellular contents of bacterial cells are not present on membrane-bounded organelles. It is present freely in the cytoplasm. The DNA of the bacterial cell is also not covered by the nuclear membrane and is present in a single coiled form of chromosomes in the nucleoid.

The cell membrane if further covered by the cell wall that is made of murein. There are several functions of the cell wall in the bacterial cell, but the main function is to provide protection and the maintenance of the cell shape. It gives the rigidity to the structure of the bacterial cell. This maintenance of structure gives the bacterial cell a better shape that helps in the classification of the bacterial cell.

The whole structure of the bacterial cell is covered by the glycoprotein coat called glycocalyx, which provides resistance to the structure. It prevents the bacteria from dehydrating and helps in the protection of the cell. Several other structures are present in the bacterial cell wall like the pili and flagella.

The bacterial cell can be autotroph or heterotroph, depending upon the structure of the cell. The source of energy in the bacterial cell can be an organic compound or the sunlight. The bacterial cell can live as a single cell or may be present in chains like diploids.

What is Animal Cell?

An animal cell is the large size cell that is covered only by the cell membrane. An animal cell is a highly specialized cell that includes both types of unicellular and multicellular cells. Animal cells contain single and double membrane-bounded organelles like the mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, etc. It also includes centrioles that help animal cells during the division process in the formation of mitochondria.

The size of ribosomes is larger than that of a bacterial cell that is 80S. its cytoplasm does not contain chlorophyll or chloroplast, so it is a heterotrophic cell. The structure of an animal cell is maintained by the microfilaments that are present in the boundary of the cell beneath the cell membrane with the help of microtubules and intermediate filaments.

The functions of animal cells are highly specialized, such as the formation of energy compounds from the organic compounds and the production of the hormones and secretory substances that are utilized by the other parts of the body. These main energy metabolisms occur in the mitochondria that contain certain enzymes for these processes.

The shape of the animal cell is irregular due to the absence of the outer cell wall that maintains the structure in the bacterial cell. It only contains the plasma membrane as the outer covering that allows the various movements across the cell membrane.

Key Differences

  1. The bacterial cell is the small size cell of 0.2 to 2 micrometers, whereas the animal cell is the large size cell of 10 to 100 micrometers.
  2. Bacterial cell’s cell wall is made of murein; on the other hand, the animal cell does not contain a cell wall.
  3. The bacterial cell includes prokaryotic cells; on the flip side, the animal cell includes in the eukaryotic cells.
  4. Membrane bounded organelles are absent in bacterial cells; on the other hand, membrane-bounded organelles are present in an animal cell.
  5. Cell walls in bacterial cells maintain their shape like cocci and bacillus, whereas the animal cell is irregular in shape because of the absence of a cell wall.
  6. Centrioles are absent in bacterial cells; on the other hand, centrioles are present in an animal cell.
  7. The bacterial cell may be food-dependent or independent; on the other hand, the animal cell is the food-dependent.
  8. The bacterial cell divides by binary fission; on the other hand, the animal cell divides by mitosis and meiosis.
  9. Mitochondria are absent in the bacterial cell; on the flip side, mitochondria are present in the animal cell.
  10. The bacterial cell is the primitive type, whereas the animal cell is the evolutionary type.
  11. The bacterial cell contains a small size of ribosomes, whereas the animal cell contains a large size of ribosomes.
  12. Lysosomes are absent in bacteria; on the other hand, lysosomes are present in the animal cell.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that Bacterial Cell is the small size cell that reproduces only by binary fission, whereas the Animal Cell is the large size cell that reproduces by both mitosis and meiosis.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White