Cytokinesis is the process in which the cytoplasm of a solitary eukaryotic cell is divided into two other cells which are known ad daughter cell. It is usually originated during the ending stages of mitosis when the mitotic cell is distributed in two others to make sure that the number of chromosomes in the cell stays the same. This process also takes place in the meiosis but not that often. Since cells are present both in animals and plants, the process of cytokinesis exists in both these forms of life. The cytokinesis in animals is different from the cytokinesis in the plants, and this article will help in clearing the variations among these two processes. The first difference between these two is that two different types of cytokinesis take place in the plant cells. The first one is cleavage cytokinesis and occurs in lower plants while the other one is called cell plate cytokinesis and occurs in higher plants. While in animals, only one type of process takes place which is the cleavage. During this process, a central body is present in the animal cell, but this core body is absent in plant cells. Next difference between these two is that vesicles are formed in rows during the plant cell cytokinesis in the equatorial plane, these are the ones which fuse to form the cell plates and for the process to initiate. Since this type does not occur in animals, there is no vesicle body. The process in plants starts when this cell plate is formed which usually happens during the telophase. In animals, on the other hand, the process begins when the cell membrane is formed, which occurs during the anaphase. Because of the complicated process in plants, there is always a wall built wherever the cytokinesis process is taking place, while this wall is non-existent in animal cells. The middle part of the body during the plant process stays there as spindle and is called phragmoplast while cytokinesis in animals the rod is collapsed when the cytokinesis process begins. The process is known as centrifugal since the cell plates grow from the center to the ends. This process in animals in known as centripetal because the formation starts from the ends and reaches the center. There are many other differences between them two which will be listed down at the end. Further paragraphs give a brief description of both these types of processes.
Definition of Plant Cytokinesis
Plants have the process of cytokinesis in them which is more complicated than the one in other beings. The process in plants starts when this cell plate is formed which usually happens during the telophase. There are two different types of processes that take place in plants. The first one is cleavage cytokinesis and occurs in lower plants while the other one is called cell plate cytokinesis and occurs in higher plants. There is no central body which is present in these cells and the middle part of the body during the Herb process stays there as spindle and is called phragmoplast. The process is known as centrifugal since the cell plates grow from the center to the ends. Vesicles are also developed in rows during the plant cell cytokinesis in the equatorial plane, these are the ones which fuse to form the cell plates and for the process to initiate.
Definition of Animal Cytokinesis
The process of cytokinesis in animals is simpler as compared to plants, the process begins when the cell membrane is formed, which happens during the anaphase, this can also occur during the late telophase. During this process, a central body is present in the animal cell. This process in animals in known as centripetal because the formation starts from the ends and reaches the center. There is no requirement of support. Therefore, the wall is non-existent in animal cells and because of this there is no cell plate as well. Microfilaments participate appropriately during the process for animal cells. The only type of cytokinesis that takes place in animals is the cleavage where the spindle is destroyed, and a body is produced at the center of the cell. Similarly, there are no vesicles for animals, and therefore they cannot play any role in the formation of a wall.
Differences in a Nutshell
- Two different types of cytokinesis processes take place in plant cell (cell plate and cleavage) while only one type of cytokinesis exists in animals (cleavage)
- Microfilaments play no role in plant cytokinesis while the role of these filaments is important during the animal cell cytokinesis.
- There is no wall present in animal cells while the wall is a major component of the process when taking place in plants.
- The process is started with the formation of cell membrane during the anaphase while animals cytokinesis, the cell plate starts forming during the telophase.
- The middle part, which is known as the spindle is destroyed during the animal cytokinesis while the axis remains intact during the animal cytokinesis.
- Vesicles are present in rows during the plant cytokinesis while they are absent in the animal cytokinesis.
- There is a cell plate present in the plant process but this cell plate is absent in the animal process.
- The cell plate grows from center to the edge therefore for plants the process is known as centrifugal, the walls rise from end to the center therefore in animals it is called.
Cytokinesis is a process which takes place in plants and humans at the same time. The process is the same and the function is similar but how it takes place is very different and that is what this article has done, to give an idea to the reader on how they are different. Hopefully, you would have been able to learn a lot through it.