Chemistry

Difference Between Zeeman Effect and Stark Effect

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Main Difference

The main difference between Zeeman Effect and Stark Effect is that the Zeeman Effect describes the splitting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong external magnetic field, whereas, Stark Effect describes the splitting and shifting of spectral lines both in the presence of a strong electric field.

Zeeman Effect vs. Stark Effect

Zeeman effect refers to the breaking of spectral lines in the presence of a strong external magnetic field, on the other hand, the Stark effect may describe both the splitting and shifting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong electric field. Zeeman effect can be observed by applying a magnetic field whereas, the Stark effect can be observed in electric fields. The root cause of the Zeeman effect is the interaction of magnetic moments with the external magnetic field; however, the root cause for the Stark effect is the interaction between electric moments of the atom and the external electric field.

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Zeeman effect only describes the splitting of spectral lines when these spectrums were subject to a magnetic field; on the other hand, the Stark effect can describe both the splitting and shifting of spectral lines. In the Zeeman effect, three different types of effects were seen which were a Normal effect, an Anomalous effect, and a Diamagnetic effect, but only two types of Stark effects were observed, which were Linear Stark effect and Quadric stark effect. Zeeman effect is analogous to stark effect, as it splits spectral lines into several components in the electric field, whereas, the Stark effect is found as the electric-field that is analog of the Zeeman effect.

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Comparison Chart

Zeeman EffectStark Effect
Describes splitting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong external magnetic fieldDescribes splitting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong external electric field
Applied Fields
Magnetic fieldElectric field
Impact
Only splitting of spectrumBoth shifting and splitting of spectrum
Cause
It is a result of the interaction between magnetic moments and the external magnetic field of an atomIt is caused due to interaction between the electric moment of atoms and the external electric field
Types
Three types; Normal effect, Anomalous effect, and Diamagnetic effectTwo types; Linear Stark effect and Quadric Stark effect
Direction
It is analogous to Stark effectIt is found as the field of electric that is correspondent of the Zeeman effect

What is the Zeeman Effect?

Zeeman effect labels the piercing of spectral outlines in the occurrence of a solid static external magnetic field. It was named in the name of Pieter Zeeman. The effect of the magnetic field on atoms is described under this concept. It is equivalent to this effect, as the spectral outlines divided into numerous constituents in the existence of a current field.

The transition between different components has different intensities, while some become entirely forbidden in the dipole approximation. As the area between Zeeman sub-levels is formed by magnetic power, it can be used to mark the magnetic field strong point just like in the sun and other stars or research laboratory plasmas. When the spectrum of different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations is emitted or absorbed during the transition of electrons between the different energy levels of an atom, a spectrum is made.

The emissions during this process lead to the formation of emission spectra, and the same way absorption on the way leads to absorption spectra, which is a specific characteristic of the elements. Spectrums are composed of the collection of spectral lines that were emitted or absorbed during each emission and absorption. As when energy is given to a hydrogen atom, it absorbs the energy and moves to a higher level.

But at higher energy, this hydrogen atom founds itself unstable, and by losing the electron, it comes back to a lower energy level, which gives an emission spectrum while the former during absorption of the electron gives an absorption spectrum. These outlines of the spectrum represent the energy change among the different energy levels of an atom.

Zeeman effect can only be observed by applying the Magnetic field as discovered by its discoverer. Zeeman observed that when these spectral lines are subjected to the external magnetic field, they undergo splitting. While studying the spectrum under the magnetic field, it was also seen that there were three spectral lines instead of one. Thus these splitting properties, as found by the scientist, were found later of use in various ways, and the effect was named as Zeeman effect.

There are three types of effects under this concept. These are Normal effects, Anomalous effects, and Diamagnetic effects. In the normal Zeeman effect, it is caused by the interaction of the orbital magnetic moment. The anomalous Zeeman effect, this is caused by the contact of a combined detour with simple magnetic flashes. The diamagnetic Zeeman consequence is produced by the communication of field-induced electromagnetic moment.

Applications

  • Nuclear magnetic resonance
  • Electron spin resonance spectroscopy
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Mossbauer spectroscopy

What is the Stark Effect?

The Stark effect is observed when the piercing of spectral outlines is observed under the impression of the field of current. These spectral lines are the resultant of radiating atoms, ions, or molecules. When the spectrum of different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations is emitted or absorbed as the transition of electrons between the different energy levels of an atom, a spectrum takes place.

The energy emissions during this process lead to the formation of emission spectra, and the same way absorption on the way leads to absorption spectra, which is a specific known characteristic of these elements. Spectrums are composed of the collection of spectral lines that were emitted or absorbed during each emission and absorption.

The Stark effect in these spectral lines was first observed by Johannes Stark, thus naming the effect after him. It can include both the ever-changing and piercing of spectral outlines. First of all, the imposed electric fields polarize the atom and then interact to result in a dipole moment. The root cause of the Stark effect is the interaction between electric moments of the atom and the external electric field.

The effect has two types, as observed, the Stark Linear effect that arises due to a dipole moment that arises as an electrical charge is distributed in a naturally occurring non-symmetric way. The other one, Stark Quadratic effect, arises as a dipole moment is induced by an external electric field. Mainly it is accountable for stress expansion of spectral outlines that are plasma charged particles.

The Stark effect can be linear or quadratic, wherein the quadratic form they are highly accurate. As it is detected for both discharge and engagement spectral outlines, the absorption lines are occasionally called a Stark inverse effect. In the hetero-structure of semiconductors, when a minor group gap substantial is squeezed in among the two coatings of greater group fissure substantial, their Stark effect can be boosted by guaranteed excitants.

The occurrence of this effect is because the electron and hovel from which excitants are dragged are placed in the conflicting course by smearing the current field, but somehow they endure in that smaller bandgap material, thus leading to merely pulling apart by the field. This result is largely castoff in modulators, especially in ocular strength transportations.

Key Differences

  1. Zeeman effect designates the breaking of spectral lines in the presence of a strong external magnetic field, on the other hand, the Stark effect describes the splitting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong electric field.
  2. Zeeman effect can be observed by applying a Magnetic field whereas, the Stark effect can be observed in magnetic fields.
  3. Zeeman effect is caused by the interaction of magnetic moments with the external magnetic field, while the Stark effect is caused by the interaction between electric moments of the atom and the external electric field.
  4. Zeeman effect has three different types of effects, which were a Normal effect, an Anomalous effect, and a Diamagnetic effect, but there were only two different types of Stark effects that were observed; Linear Stark effect and Quadric Stark effect.
  5. Zeeman effect described the splitting of spectral lines when spectral lines were subject to a magnetic field, on the flip side, the Stark effect may describe the splitting and shifting of spectral lines both.
  6. Zeeman effect is analogous to the Stark effect, whereas, the Stark effect is found as the electric-field that is analogous to the Zeeman effect.

Conclusion

Zeeman effect designates the breaking of spectral lines in the presence of a strong external magnetic field, whereas, the Stark effect may describe both the splitting and shifting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong electric field.

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Harlon Moss

Harlon currently works as a quality moderator and content writer for Difference Wiki. He graduated from the University of California in 2010 with a degree in Computer Science. Follow him on Twitter @HarlonMoss