Difference Between Russia and Soviet Union


Main Difference

The main difference between Russia and the Soviet Union is that Russia is the name of a single country of Asia while the Soviet Union was the name of former federation of Communist Republic comprise of fifteen republics.

Comparison Chart

RussiaSoviet Union
Russia was formed as result of Belavezha Accord signed by Russian, Ukraine and Belarus presidents.The Soviet Union was a socialist state formed by Vladimir Linen on the Eurasian continent.
Official Name
Russian FederationUnion of Soviet Socialist Republic
Political Parties System
Multi-party systemSingle party system
Russia has its identity because of being one countryIt was collection of states sharing diverse culture and traditions
Coat of Arms
Red shield, golden double-headed eagle with scepter, orb, and three crownsRed five-pointed star with golden border and containing hammer and sickle, globe and the rising sun
Russian FederationUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics
God is with usWorkers of the world, unite!

What is Russia?

Russia, also called as Russian Federation, is the largest country in the world and the ninth most populous in the world. Russian Federation was formed on December 25, 1991, and before that it was known as the Soviet Union or USSR. Russian Federation was formed as a result of the dissolution of the Soviet Union after the Soviet-Afghan War. Boris Yeltsin was the first directly elected President of Russia and he was elected President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist. In December 1991, the country was renamed as Russian Federation. After the dissolution of Soviet Union, various reforms were introduced including the market structure, trade liberalization, and privatization. The new economy system resulted in 50% decline in both industrial output and GDP during 1990 and 1995. Russia has had officially attracting GFDI and has experienced large capital outflows in past several years. Russia is rich in natural resources and well ahead of many other resources. It has a long tradition of science and technology, industry and education.


What is Soviet Union?

The Soviet Union was a socialist state formed by Vladimir Linen on the Eurasian continent. The Soviet Union was the union of multiple Soviet republics and lasted from 1922 to 1991. Also called as USSR, the Soviet Union was a one-party federation that was governed by the Communist Party. In 1917, Vladimir Lenin established the Russian Soviet Federative Soviet Republic that was later on renamed as Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic by Joseph Stalin 1936. The official constitution of Soviet Union was adopted in 1924, thus. As a result, it was established a federal system of government based on a succession of Soviets set up in factories, villages, and cities in the larger region. During the era of Soviet Union, almost all small businesses and industries were nationalized and the money economy was restricted at all. Lenin adopted new Economic Policy. The Soviet Union continued to be responsible for transportation, heavy industry, banking and other basic public utilities.

Key Differences

  1. USSR or the Soviet Union era was lasted from 1917 to 1991 whereas Russia continued from that point till now.
  2. Russia is the successor of Soviet Union and comprising present day Russia and Siberia for the most part while the Soviet Union was the federation of almost fifteen countries.
  3. The Soviet Union maintained an advanced and large military in the world while the size of Russian military has been decreased significantly since the dissolution of Soviet Union.
  4. The Soviet Union formed a one-party system while current political party system in Russia is a multi-party
  5. The Soviet Union was much bigger as government and wider in term of geographical location as compared to the Russia that is very small in term of both government and geographical
  6. Russia is a country while the Soviet Union was a political state.
  7. Current Russian Coat of Arms was adopted on November 30, 1993, and before it, there was State Emblem of the Soviet Union as a place of the coat of arms.
  8. In the Soviet Union, legislative body was Supreme Soviet that is now Federal Assembly.
  9. The Upper and Lower House in Russia are Federation Council and State Duma respectively, while these were Soviet of the Union and Soviet of Nationalities respectively during the Soviet Union.
  10. Russia government system is a federal, semi-presidential and constitutional republic. Soviet Union government system was federal, Marxist-Linen one party, and socialist state.
  11. Present-day Russia is a multi-faith and multi-ethnic nation with Orthodox Christianity the largest religion. The Soviet Union had no religion. It was stated
  12. The demonym of Russia is Russian while the demonym of Soviet Union was Soviet.
  13. Russian currency is Russian Ruble whereas Soviet Union currency was Soviet Ruble.
  14. Russia is more socialized than the Soviet Union that was heavily influenced by communism.
  15. The Soviet Union was founded by Vladimir Lenin while Russia was formed as result of Belavezha Accord signed by Russian, Ukraine and Belarus presidents.
  16. During the era of Soviet Union, almost all small businesses and industries were nationalized. However, in Russia, most of the large-scale nationalized businesses, and state-owned assets were privatized as a result of the post-Soviet reforms.
Aimie Carlson

Aimie Carlson is an English language enthusiast who loves writing and has a master degree in English literature. Follow her on Twitter at @AimieCarlson