Difference Between Japonica and Indica

Main Difference

The main difference between japonica and indica is that japonica grain is roundish, short, do not shatter easily and have 10-24% amylose whereas indica grain is slender, somewhat flat, long to short, and have 23-31% amylose.

Japonica vs. Indica

Japonica rice grain is roundish, short, do not shatter easily, spikelets are awnless to long-awned and have 10-24% amylose whereas indica grain is slender, somewhat flat, long to short, spikelets are awnless, shatter more easily and have 23-31% amylose. Japonica rice grows all over the world in temperate and mountain areas, on the other hand, indica rice grows well near the equator. Japonica cultivated in Japan and Korea, on the contrary, indica is cultivated mostly in the Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, and African countries. Japonica rice kernel is two to three times longer than its actual wideness, on the flip side, the indica rice kernel is four to five times longer than its actual wideness. Japonica is the moist, bright white rice, sticky used in sushi and Asian dishes whereas indica rice when cooked, rice is fluffy, with separate kernels. Japonica rice is high yielding rice while indica rice is low yielding rice. Japonica varies in size from medium grain size/short grain size while indica is only long grain rice. The Japanese most favor Japonica’s two varieties are Akita Komachi and Koshihikari whereas indica’s two varieties are well-known Basmati and Jasmine.

Comparison Chart

JaponicaIndica
Rice grain, which is roundish, short, do not shatter easily and have 10-24% amylose is japonica.Rice grain which is slender, somewhat flat, long to short, easily shattered and have 23-31% amylose is indica.
Plant Height
ShortTall
Cultivates In
Japan and KoreaPhilippines, Indonesia, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, and African countries
Kernel Size
Two to three times longer than widenessFour to five times longer than wideness
Photoperiod
Non-sensitiveSensitive
Lodging
Not easilyEasily
Low Temperature
TolerantSensitive
Grain Shattering
LowEasily
Grain Texture
StickyNonsticky
Grain Type
Short and roundLong to medium
Grain Amylase
10-24%23-31%

What is Japonica?

Japonica is a type of rice varieties from northern and eastern China and grown extensively in some areas of the world. Japonica is found in the cooler zones of the subtropics and also in the temperate zones. Japonica is cultivated mostly in Japan, China, Taiwan, and Korea. Japonica is a comparatively short plant with narrow, medium-height tillers, and dark green leaves. Japonica rice grain is short and round; they do not shatter easily and have amylose content from 10-24%, which makes them moist and sticky when they cooked. Japonica is the moist, bright white rice, sticky which used in sushi. Japonica rice kernel is two to three times longer than its actual wideness. Japonica rice is high yielding rice. Japonica varies in size from medium grain size/short grain size. Medium-size grain rice is moister and more glutinous than long-grain rice, which is ideal Asian dishes and Mediterranean that require paella, stickiness, like risotto, and sushi. The Japanese most favor Japonica’s two varieties are Akita Komachi and Koshihikari.

What is Indica?

Indica is the main type of grown rice in the tropic and subtropics, grows well near the equator. Indica is most cultivated in the Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, central and southern China, and African countries. Indica plants are tall, light green, with broad to narrow leaves. Indica rice grain is long to short, somewhat flat, slender, they tend to shatter more easily, and have high amylose content from 23-31%, which makes them flakier and drier when they cooked. Indica rice kernel is four to five times longer than its actual wideness. Indica is low yielding rice. Indica is longer to medium grain rice. Indica’s two varieties are well-known Basmati and Jasmine.

Key Differences

  1. Japonica rice grain is roundish, short, do not shatter easily, spikelets are awnless to long-awned and have 10-24% amylose whereas indica grain is slender, somewhat flat, long to short, spikelets are awnless, shatter more easily and have 23-31% amylose.
  2. Japonica rice grows all over the world in temperate and mountain areas, on the other hand, indica rice grows well near the equator.
  3. Japonica cultivated in Japan and Korea, on the contrary, indica is cultivated mostly in the Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, and African countries.
  4. Japonica is the moist, bright white rice, sticky used in sushi and Asian dishes whereas indica rice when cooked, rice is fluffy, with separate kernels.
  5. Japonica rice kernel is two to three times longer than its actual wideness, on the flip side, the indica rice kernel is four to five times longer than its actual wideness.
  6. Japonica rice is high yielding rice while indica is low yielding rice.
  7. Japonica varies in size from medium grain size/short grain size while indica is only long grain rice.
  8. The Japanese most favor Japonica’s two varieties are Akita Komachi and Koshihikari whereas indica’s two varieties are well-known Basmati and Jasmine.

Conclusion

Above discussion concludes that japonica grain is roundish, short, do not shatter easily and have 10-24% amylose whereas indica grain is slender, somewhat flat, long to short, and have 23-31% amylose.

Aimie Carlson

Aimie Carlson is an English language enthusiast who loves writing and has a master degree in English literature. Follow her on Twitter at @AimieCarlson

View all posts by Aimie Carlson