Difference Between Cleavage and Mitosis

Main Difference

The main difference between Cleavage and Mitosis is that Cleavage is the cytoplasmic division that follows the nuclear division, whereas Mitosis is the process of cell division in which the parent cell is divided into two daughter cells.

Cleavage vs. Mitosis

Mitosis and Cleavage are the two events of the cell cycle. Cleavage is also known as cytokinesis, whereas, the two steps of the mitosis include karyokinesis and cytokinesis. Cleavage is the cytoplasmic division that follows the nuclear division. Mitosis, on the other hand, is the process of cell division in which the parent cell is divided into two daughter cells. Basically, cleavage is the second step of the cell division, and it is responsible for the parting of the parent cell into two daughter cells. Cleavage starts during the telophase which is the final stage of the nuclear division. Furthermore, cytokinesis is the term which describes the cytoplasmic division of all the types of cells including plant cells, animal cells, and the prokaryotic cells because the process of cleavage mostly refers to the cytokinesis in animals. Conversely, the process of mitosis occurs through the two steps; nuclear division, which follows the cytokinesis. The process of cytokinesis in an animal as well as in many unicellular eukaryotes occurs through the four steps, which include the initiation, contraction, membrane insertion, and completion. Mitosis, on the flip side, also has four stages which include the prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and the telophase.

Comparison Chart

CleavageMitosis
The cytoplasmic division that follows the nuclear division is called cleavage.The process of cell division in which the parent cell is divided into two daughter cells is called mitosis.
Occurrence
Cleavage occurs only in the animal cells.Mitosis occurs in both the plant and animal cells.
Significance
Cleavage is also known as the cytokinesis in the animal cells.There are two steps of mitosis, which are the karyokinesis and the cytokinesis.
Events
During the cleavage, the division of the cytoplasm of the parent cell occurs in the two daughter nuclei.During mitosis, the division of the parent nucleus occurs into the two daughter nuclei, and then the division of the cytoplasm occurs.
Components
The components like myosin filaments, actin filaments, and the contractile ring are involved in the cleavage.The mitotic spindles that are made up of microtubules are involved in nuclear division.
In Embryology
Cleavage suggests to the fast cell division of the zygote by mitosis.Mitosis is that type of cell division which is responsible for the cleavage.
Size
The size of blastomere decreases as their number increases.The size of the daughter cells remains nearly constant during growth.
Presence
Cleavage occurs in the parthenogenetic cell or zygote.Mitosis occurs in most of the body cells.
Cytoplasmic or Nuclear Ratio
Cytoplasmic or nuclear ratio increases as the cleavage progress.The cytoplasmic or nuclear ratio does not change during mitosis.
Consequence
Cleavage follows the nuclear division.Mitosis is followed by the cytokinesis, which in turn is followed by the division of the cytoplasm.

What is Cleavage?

Cleavage is the cytoplasmic division that follows the nuclear division. During embryogenesis, cleavage suggests to the rapid mitotic divisions of the zygote and form the blastocyst which is a multicellular structure. As cleavage is involved in the dispersal of the cytoplasm of the zygote between the cells of the blastocyst, therefore it is characterized by the lack of the growth of daughter cells. The process of cytokinesis in an animal as well as in many unicellular eukaryotes occurs through the four steps, which are initiation, contraction, membrane insertion, and completion.

What is Mitosis?

Mitosis is cell division in which the parent cell is divided into two daughter cells. It is an event of the cell cycle that follows the G2 phase. The process of mitosis occurs through the two steps; nuclear division, which follows the cytokinesis. It is responsible for the asexual reproduction since it produces new cells, which can replace the damaged, old or the lost cells. Besides, the daughter cells which are produced by the mitosis have the exact amount of the chromosomes as the parent cell. The process of mitosis includes four stages, which are the prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

Key Differences

  1. The cytoplasmic division that follows the nuclear division is called cleavage, whereas, the process of cell division in which the parent cell is divided into two daughter cells is called mitosis.
  2. The size of blastomere decreases as their number increases, while, the size of the daughter cells remain nearly constant during the growth.
  3. Cleavage is the process that occurs only in the animal cells; on the other hand, mitosis is the process that occurs in both the plant and animal cells.
  4. Cleavage is the process which is also known as the cytokinesis in the animal cells. Conversely, there are two steps of mitosis, which are the karyokinesis and the cytokinesis.
  5. During the process of cleavage, the division of the cytoplasm of the parent cell occurs in the two daughter nuclei, on the flip side, during the process of mitosis, the division of the parent nucleus occurs into the two daughter nuclei and then the division of the cytoplasm occurs.
  6. The components like myosin filaments, actin filaments, and the contractile ring are involved in the process of cleavage, on the other side, the mitotic spindle which is made up of the microtubules is involved in nuclear division.
  7. Cleavage is the process that suggests to the fast cell division of the zygote by mitosis, on the other hand, mitosis is that type of cell division which is responsible for the cleavage.
  8. Cleavage follows the nuclear division, on the flip side, mitosis is followed by the cytokinesis which is the stage of cell division and oversees the parting of identical genetic material into the two new nuclei and is followed by the division of the cytoplasm.
  9. Cytoplasmic or nuclear ratio increases as the cleavage progress, whereas, the cytoplasmic or nuclear ratio does not change during mitosis.
  10. Cleavage occurs in the parthenogenetic cell or zygote, while, mitosis occurs in most of the body cells.

Conclusion

All of the above discussion summarizes that cleavage is the cytokinesis of the animal cells. It comprises the division of the cytoplasm among the two daughter nuclei which were formed during the nuclear division. Mitosis, on the other hand, is the splitting of a parent cell into two daughter cells which contain the same number of chromosomes as that which were present in the parent cell.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White

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