Carbohydrates are the hydrated carbons. They are classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. One of the polysaccharides is starch, which contains amylose and amylopectin in it or in other words we can say that amylose and amylopectin are the part of starch. 70-80% of starch has amylopectin, and only 20-30% of starch has amylose in its structure. The main difference between amylose and amylopectin is of structure and solubility. Both have glucose molecule in it linked together, but amylose has a linear structure of glucose chain linked together from C1 of one glucose and C4 of other glucose, this is called α-1,4-glycosidic bonds. On the other hand, amylopectin has a branched structure; it also has α-1,4-glycosidic bonds, but it also contains a branched chain linked at some points via α-1,6-glycosidic bonds. Another difference between both of them is that amylose has the chain of 300-several thousands number of glucose units, on the other hand, amylopectin has 2000-200,000 units of glucose linked with branched after each 20-30 unit. The interesting thing is that amylose is insoluble in water while amylopectin is soluble in water.
What is Amylose?
Amylose is the part of a polysaccharide named as starch. It forms about 20-30% of the starch structure. D-glucose molecules are linked together to form a large linear chain collectively to form amylose. These glucose molecules are linked together by α-1,4-glycosidic bonds. The number of glucose units in amylose are about 300-several thousand. These glucose molecules form long chains as C1 attaches to other C4 of glucose. Amylose is insoluble in water due to which starch also show some insolubility in water. It should be kept mentioned that amylose is soluble in hot water following which when it is dissolved in hot water it does not form a starch gel. Amylose is an energy source, especially in plants. Amylose is rigid in structure due to tight packing in its structure. At the same time, it is also a great storage of energy. Amylose gives blue color in iodine test that helps in distinguishing it from other such components.
What is Amylopectin?
Amylopectin is the part of a polysaccharide named as Starch. It forms about 70-80% of the starch structure. D-glucose.molecule that are linked together to form a large branched chain collectively form amylopectin. These glucose molecules are linked together by α-1,4-glycosidic bonds in a linear manner and have α-1,6-glycosidic bonds in branch chain. Each branch is attached to 20-30 units. The number of glucose units in amylopectin are 2000-200,000. These glucose molecules form long chains linearly as C1 attaches to other C4 and C1 and C6 as a branch. Amylopectin is soluble in water. When it is dissolved in hot water, it forms a starch gel. Amylopectin is an energy source, especially in animals. Amylopectin is non-rigid in structure. Amylopectin stores less energy. It gives reddish brown color in iodine test that helps in distinguishing it from others.
Amylose vs. Amylopectin
- Amylose forms 20-30% of the starch structure, whereas amylopectin forms 70-80% pf starch structure.
- Amylose has a linear chain structure, on the other hand, amylopectin has a branched chain structure.
- Amylose has 300-several thousand units of glucose while amylopectin has 2000-200,000 units of glucose.
- Amylose is rigid in structure as compared to the amylopectin.
- Amylose is usually insoluble in water, whereas amylopectin is soluble in water.
- Amylose gives blue color in iodine test while amylopectin gives reddish brown color in iodine test.