Intermolecular Forces vs. Intramolecular Forces

Main Difference

The main difference between Intermolecular Forces and Intramolecular Forces is that Intermolecular Forces are the forces which facilitate interaction between molecules, with forces of attraction or repulsion which perform between molecules and other types of adjacent particles, e.g., atoms or ions. Whereas an intramolecular force is any force that binds together the atoms creating up within a molecule or compound,

Intermolecular Forces vs. Intramolecular Forces — Is There a Difference?
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Difference Between Intermolecular Forces and Intramolecular Forces

Intermolecular Forces vs. Intramolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces are the forces that join molecules in a substance whereas intramolecular forces are the forces that join atoms in a molecule.

Intermolecular Forces vs. Intramolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces are weaker than intramolecular forces, but intramolecular forces are stronger than intermolecular forces.

Intermolecular Forces vs. Intramolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces arise between molecules; on the other hand, intramolecular forces arise within a molecule.

Intermolecular Forces vs. Intramolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces define the state of matter (solid/liquid/gas) and their physical properties such as melting/ boiling point while intramolecular forces determine the chemical behavior of a substance.

Intermolecular Forces vs. Intramolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces are attractive and repulsive forces conversely intramolecular forces are chemical bonds.

Intermolecular Forces vs. Intramolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces are categorizing into London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding forces on the flip side intramolecular forces are categorizing into ionic, covalent, and metal bonds.

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Comparison Chart

Intermolecular ForcesIntramolecular Forces
Forces that hold molecules in a substanceForces that hold atoms in a molecule
Determination of properties
Determine the state of matterDetermine the chemical behavior of a substance
Strength
WeakerStronger
Nature of forces
Attractive or repulsive forcesChemical bond
Occurrence
Between moleculesWithin a molecule
Examples
London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding forcesCovalent, ionic and metal bonds
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Intermolecular Forces vs. Intramolecular Forces

Intermolecular Forces are the forces which facilitate communication between molecules, comprising forces of attraction or repulsion which occurs between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms whereas An intramolecular force is any force that joins together the atoms creating up within a molecule or compound. Intermolecular forces occur between the molecules whereas intramolecular forces occur between atoms within a molecule. Intermolecular forces are the forces that grasp molecules in a substance whereas intramolecular forces are the forces that grip atoms in a molecule. Intermolecular forces regulate the state of matter (solid/liquid/gas) and their physical properties such as melting/ boiling point etc. but intramolecular forces control chemical behavior of a substance. Intermolecular forces are weaker than intramolecular forces, but intramolecular forces are stronger than intermolecular forces. Intermolecular forces are attractive and repulsive forces, but intramolecular forces form chemical bonds. Intermolecular forces are categorizing into London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding forces whereas intramolecular forces are categorizing into ionic, covalent, and metallic bond.

What are the Intermolecular forces?

Intermolecular forces are forces that hold individual molecules in a matter due to their positive and negative charges. Intermolecular forces are attractive and repulsive forces, but not chemical bonds. Intermolecular forces are considerably weaker. These forces regulate the physical appearances of a substance. One of the most important physical characteristics is the capability to adjust the state of material whether it is solid, liquid or gas. These forces are responsible for the arbitrary motion of gasses, and the presence of liquids and solids molecules in organize form. Intermolecular forces define the melting and boiling point of the matter. Both melting and boiling point is proportional to the power of intermolecular forces, as higher the melting or boiling point, the stronger the intermolecular forces in them. At a specific temperature, the control of intermolecular forces of liquid, gas, and solid are following Gas < Liquid < Solid. There are three forms of intermolecular forces known as London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding forces. All these bonding arises due to electric charges resulting from the organization of electrons and nuclei in the molecules. Among these three types, hydrogen bonds are the strongest form of intermolecular bonds. Water molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds due to the occurrence of incomplete charges at exact locations on the molecules.

What are Intramolecular forces?

An intramolecular force is any force that joins together the atoms creating up within a molecule or compound. Forces that binds atoms in a molecule are known as intramolecular forces. These forces are responsible for the establishment of chemical bonds. Intramolecular forces are much stronger as compare to intermolecular forces. The standard three main types of chemical bonds are ionic, covalent, and metallic distinguishes by the degree of charge parting between sharing atoms. Intramolecular interactions arise when two atoms share or donate and gain electrons to from another molecule. When electrons are sharing between two atoms, the bond is known as a covalent bond. When one atom gives/ gain electron, the bond is known as an ionic bond. Intramolecular forces govern the chemical parameters of a substance. The characteristics of the bond formation can predict by the properties of component atoms, namely electronegativity. Intramolecular forces are significant in the field of biochemistry, where they play an essential role at basic levels of biological structures. Intramolecular forces such as disulfide bonds provide proteins and DNA the structure that profiles them and holds them together. The primary source of structure in these molecules is the interaction between the amino acid residues due to the interaction of intramolecular forces that form the foundation of proteins. These interactions between remains of the same proteins form the secondary structure of the protein, permitting the development of beta sheets and alpha helices, which are essential structures for proteins, and DNA.

Conclusion

Intermolecular and intramolecular forces are the two forms of forces that join individual molecules and atoms together. These forces regulate the movement of molecules and atoms. Both types of forces define the chemical and physical characteristics of substances.