In the sexual reproduction, the inherited genes from the parental chromosomes are held responsible for the certain traits and characteristics of an individual. In the eukaryotic organisms just like human being, the individual possess the diploid genetic situation as it comprises of the two sets of the gene, out of which one is known as the maternal gene and is taken from the mother. Whereas the other gene is known as the paternal gene and it is taken from the father. The twin copies and combinations of genes are known as alleles. The contrast in the alleles of an individual defines both these terms Homozygous and Heterozygous. When an individual has two copies of the same allele (for example MM or mm) then the genetic condition is called homozygous, on the other hand, when an individual has two different types of alleles, then such the genetic condition is called heterozygous.
What is Homozygous?
When the paternal and maternal gene combine in such a manner that it gives an individual the two copies of the similar allele, then such a genetic condition is called homozygous. In this type of genetic condition in which the rise to similar kind of homozygous individual is given. The similar alleles setting this condition assures the purity in the transfer of certain traits and characteristics. The individual formed with this type of genetic situation; a homozygous individual can either carry dominant or recessive alleles at one time. The dominant and recessive are the two types of alleles, out of it the dominant allele is held responsible that which trait the offspring of the parents will show. For instance, the dominant allele is denoted as ‘M’, then in the homozygous, parents give up the similar allele to from the genotype of the individual, in this case, it would be ‘MM.’ And if both the traits from mother and father were recessive and the recessive traits are denoted by’ then in the case homozygous genotype formed will be ‘mm.’
What is Heterozygous?
When the paternal and maternal gene of the parents combine in such a way that it consists up of two different types of alleles, then such the genetic condition is called heterozygous. As it carries the dissimilar alleles, the heterozygous genotype consists of both the dominant and recessive alleles at the same time. Following it, the heterozygous individual produces two type of gametes. The heterozygous gene condition is the combination of recessive gene and dominant gene. Out of them the dominant genes is expressed as the phenotype, and it indicates that which trait further the child will have. The dominant gene can either come from the paternal genes or maternal genes, although Finally, it expresses the trait in a child. For instance, the recessive gene is denoted as ‘t’ and the dominant gene is denoted as ‘T’, then the heterozygous gene condition will further be the ‘Tt.’
- When an individual has the two copies of the similar allele, then such a genetic condition is called homozygous, whereas when an individual has two different types of alleles, then such the genetic condition is called heterozygous.
- A homozygous individual can either carry dominant or recessive alleles at one time, on the other hand, heterozygous individual carries both the dominant and recessive alleles at one time.
- Homozygous individual produces one type of gamete, whereas heterozygous individual produces two type of gametes.