Difference Between Gene vs. DNA

Main Difference

The main difference between gene and DNA is that gene is small stretches of DNA that determines a specific trait, whereas DNA is a chemical structure that stores the genetic information.

Gene vs. DNA

Gene is the small stretches of DNA that determines a specific trait or encodes for different proteins, whereas DNA is a chemical structure that stores the genetic information of living organisms. Gene determines only a specific trait of a living one; on the other hand, DNA controls many functions such as gene regulation. Structurally gene is only small stretches of DNA; on the contrary, DNA is a long chain of polynucleotides. Gene shares only genetic information because it contains only small threads of DNA and carries only genetic information, but DNA shares all the material, not only genetic information. Gene is made up of DNA or RNA; on the contrary, DNA is made up of simpler monomer units called nucleotides. A gene is present on a chromosome, whereas DNA is present inside the nucleus and nucleoid of the cell. Gene is a region or a specific nucleotide on DNA strands, on the flip side, DNA is double-stranded molecule where each strand is complementary and further coiled to form a double-helix structure. Gene called the central dogma of molecular biology, whereas DNA’s complete set in an organism is called genome. The studies about gene started a long time ago, but the studies about DNA recently started.

Comparison Chart

GeneDNA
Gene is the small stretches of DNA that determines a specific trait or encodes for different proteins.DNA is a chemical structure that stores the genetic information of living organisms.
Genetic Material
Shares only genetic information.Share all the material, not only genetic information.
Role
It determines only a specific trait of a living one.It controls many functions, such as gene regulation.
Size of Molecules
Small stretches of DNA.A long chain of polynucleotides.
Composition
Made up of DNA or RNA.It made up of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.
Regulation
It Regulates the trait of organisms.It Regulates gene regulation.
Location
It located on a chromosome.Present within the nucleus of the cell.
Studies
Its studies started a very long time ago.Its studies recently started.
Variety/Numbers
At least about thirty thousand genes in every cell.The double-stranded molecule is having 3.2 billion base pairs and 25,000 genes.

What is Gene?

Gene is the small stretches of DNA that determines a specific trait or encodes for different proteins. Gene determines only a specific trait of a living one. Structurally gene is only small stretches of DNA. A gene is a region or a specific nucleotide sequence present on the DNA strand. Gene has an amino acid sequence of specific proteins of the body. About thirty thousand genes are present inside a single cell/DNA. Gene is considered as the hereditary unit since the studies show them as the basic unit of transfer of genetic information from parents. Gene is present on chromosomes, and each chromosome has a definite character that will show only a particular trait. Gene shares only genetic information because it contains only small threads of DNA and carries only genetic information. Gene is composed of either DNA or RNA. During gene expression, DNA first copied into RNA and then RNA change into proteins directly or as a template for a protein to perform a function. This transmission of the gene into an offspring is the basis of inheritance. The studies about gene started in the earlier centuries.

What is DNA?

DNA is a chemical structure that stores the genetic information of living organisms. It is genetic material of all the living organisms. It is present inside the nucleus of the cell or nucleoid. DNA stores all the information of a living one other than genetic information for a long-term, which is essential for the development and reproduction. DNA is made up of simpler monomer units called nucleotides. These monomers consist of three groups: pentose sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group. Nitrogenous base and phosphate group used to attach to the pentose sugar. Four different nitrogenous bases identified in DNA are cytosine(C), thymine(T), adenine(A), and guanine(G). These nitrogenous bases arranged in different orders for store genetic information. The order of the nucleotide sequence on the sugar-phosphate backbone recognized as genes. DNA is a double-stranded molecule where each strand is complementary and further coiled to form a double-helix structure. This double helix structure forms the B-form geometry. Large double-stranded DNA molecule having 3.2 billion base pairs and 25,000 genes.

Key Differences

  1. Gene is the small stretches of DNA that determines a specific trait or encodes for different proteins, whereas DNA is a chemical structure that stores the genetic information of living organisms.
  2. Gene determines only a specific trait of a living one; on the other hand, DNA controls many functions such as gene regulation.
  3. Structurally gene is only small stretches of DNA; on the contrary, DNA is a long chain of polynucleotides.
  4. A gene is present on a chromosome, whereas DNA is present inside the nucleus and nucleoid of the cell.
  5. Gene shares only genetic information because it contains only small threads of DNA and carries only genetic information, but DNA shares all the material, not only genetic information.
  6. Gene is made up of DNA or RNA; on the contrary, DNA is made up of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.
  7. Gene is a region or a specific nucleotide on DNA strands, on the flip side, DNA is double-stranded molecule where each strand is complementary and further coiled to form a double-helix structure.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that gene is small stretches of DNA that determines a specific trait, whereas DNA is a chemical structure that stores the genetic information.

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