BiologyMedicalScience

Difference Between Chromosome and Chromatid

ADVERTISEMENT
CONTINUE READING BELOW

Main Difference

Both these terms chromosomes and chromatid are used in the study of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). It should be kept mentioned that DNA is found in almost all the organisms including humans and; it is the hereditary material which is transmitted from the parents to the offspring. As their spellings are quite the same and both these terms are interrelated, people find it difficult to distinguish between both of them. They can be differentiated as chromosomes are the thread-like structures that form the DNA molecule, whereas either of the two strands formed when a chromosome duplicates itself as part of the early stages of cell division is known as chromatid.

Comparison Chart

ChromosomeChromatid
StructureChromosomes are the threadlike structures that form the DNA molecule.Either of the two strands formed when a chromosome duplicates itself as part of the early stages of cell division is known as chromatid.
Carry Genetic MaterialYesNo
ADVERTISEMENT
CONTINUE READING BELOW

What is Chromosome?

A thread-like structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes is known as the chromosome. In a human body, each of the cells contains 46 individual chromosomes or 23 pairs of chromosomes. Out of these 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs are same in the males and females, whereas the twenty-third pair is different in males and females. The 22 similar chromosome pairs are called the autosomes, whereas the one distinguishing in male and female is called the sex chromosome. The pairing of chromosomes takes place in mitosis, which is an essential process of the cell division. It should be kept noted that chromosome is made up of DNA and protein; it carries the reproductive information which is passed on from parents to the offspring. The shape of the chromosome is different in eukaryotes and prokaryotes; in eukaryotes, they are organized in the linear pattern, whereas in prokaryotes they are set in the circular pattern. The point dividing the chromosomes into two sections or arms is known as the centromere. At the same time, centromere determines the location of the specific genes and is also responsible for giving chromosome its characteristic shape.

ADVERTISEMENT

What is Chromatid?

The chromatids are joined by a single centromere and later separate to become individual chromosomes. When we talk about the pair of chromosomes, we refer to the presence of the two chromatids. In the chromosome pair, chromatids are tied up or united by using the centromere. When the two chromosomes are separated as individual after removal of the centromere, they are called the sister chromatids as they resemble each other. The chromatids are equally essential as the chromosomes in the process of mitosis.

Chromosome vs. Chromatid

  • Chromosomes are the threadlike structures that form the DNA molecule, whereas either of the two strands formed when a chromosome duplicates itself as part of the early stages of cell division is known as chromatid.
  • When we talk about the pair of chromosomes, we refer to the presence of the two chromatids. In the chromosome pair, chromatids are tied up or united by using the centromere.
  • In other words, we can say that chromatid is the sister of the chromosome.
ADVERTISEMENT

Comparison Video

YouTube video
Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White

Adblocker detected! Please consider reading this notice.

We've detected that you are using AdBlock Plus or some other adblocking software which is preventing the page from fully loading.

We don't have any banner, Flash, animation, obnoxious sound, or popup ad. We do not implement these annoying types of ads!

We need money to operate the site, and almost all of it comes from our online advertising.

Please add difference.wiki to your ad blocking whitelist or disable your adblocking software.

×