Difference WikiPolitics

Difference Between Central Government and State Government

Main Difference

The main difference between Central Government and State Government is that the Central Government is defined as the political authority that governs an entire country or nation, whereas the State Government is defined as a unit of government that is specific for a state

Central Government vs. State Government

The central government is also known as the federal government or union government, and it is the government for the entire nation or country. On the other hand, the state government is specifically the government of states. The central government manages foreign relations, whereas the state government manages public health and safety. The central government has more power, and it has the authority to delegate this power or not; on the flip side, the state government is having the hierarchy of power systems from the state level to the province level.

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The central government has the authority to control, and its responsibilities deal with national security and international diplomacy. The duties of state government are related to the progress, development, law, and order. The power and authority of the central government rely on centralization; on the other side, the countries with the state government are having decentralization of power. A central government regulates the trade between the states and with other countries, while the state government oversees the trade within the state borders.

Comparison Chart

Central GovernmentState Government
A political authority that governs an entire country or nation is a central governmentA unit of government that is specific for a state is a state government
Kind of Government
The government for the entire countryThe government of a specific state
Trade
Regulates the trade between the states and with other countriesRegulates the trade within the state borders
Manages
The foreign relationsPublic health and safety
Power
CentralizedDecentralization
Responsibilities
Deals with national security and international diplomacyRelated with the progress, development, law, and order
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What is the Central Government?

The central government is defined as the political authority that governs an entire country or nation. It is also known as the national or federal government. In the central government, the power is shared between the central government and state governments. The central government shares the revenue in the budget of every year with the state government or provinces.

The basic structure of the central government is divided into three branches, and the power is separated into these branches. The first one is the legislative branch. It is a two-house Congress that is composed of a Senate and the House of Representatives. This branch is responsible for makes federal laws, and these laws are applied to the entire nation. The second one is the executive branch, and its chief executive is the President. The President enforces the federal laws with the help of a cabinet, federal departments, and agencies. The third one is the judicial branch having the federal courts. It must interpret the laws by hearing arguments about them.

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Roles of Central Government

  • Assesses and collect taxes
  • Print money and regulate its value, punish counterfeiters
  • Regulate interstate between states and foreign trade
  • Declare war, raise and maintain the armed forces
  • Manage foreign affairs

What is the State Government?

The state government is defined as a unit of government that is specific for a state. It makes laws for a state and has the duty to enforce them. It has certain reserved powers and responsibilities concerning its area. The modern nations like the United States and Australia, have the state governments. State government holds the responsibility to administer the local needs of a particular state or region. In the United States, there are 50 states, each with a state government.

State government takes responsibility in a state of things such as birth certificates, death certificates, driving license, vehicle registration, etc. A state government is also having a state constitution, which is a document that lays down the governmental structure. It tells the political processes and limitations on the use of power by a state. The structure of the state government is having three branches assigned with various tasks. These branches are the executive branch, legislative branch, and the judicial branch.

Roles of State Government

  • Regulates the trade within state borders
  • Establish regulations for local corporations
  • Administer to the needs of local governments
  • Regulates the educational system of a state
  • Make licensing rules for professionals of the state
  • Manage public health and safety

Key Differences

  1. The central government is the government for the entire country, whereas the state government is the government of a specific state.
  2. The central government is defined as the political authority that governs an entire country or nation; in contrast, the State government is defined as a unit of government that is specific for a state.
  3. A central government regulates the trade between the states and with other countries; on the other hand, a state government oversees the trade within the state borders.
  4. The central government manages foreign relations; conversely, the state government manages public health and safety.
  5. The power and authority of the central government rely on centralization; on the flip side, the power and authority of state government countries are decentralized.
  6. The central government has more power, and it has the authority to delegate this power or not; contrarily, the state government is having the hierarchy of power system from the state level to province level.
  7. The central government has the authority to control, and its responsibilities deal with national security and international diplomacy; on the other side, the duties of state government are related to the progress, development, law, and order.

Conclusion

The central government and state governments are the two political authorities that are different from one another. The difference between these governments is based on their use of power, authority, duties, management, and the like.

Aimie Carlson

Aimie Carlson is an English language enthusiast who loves writing and has a master degree in English literature. Follow her on Twitter at @AimieCarlson