Central Government vs. State Government: What's the Difference?

Primary Difference

There are different forms of government which exist in various countries, the way a sovereign state is run depends on many factors and the type of rule that a country has is decided after careful considerations. We know that Federal form of government is one way a country is run. This consists of two types of bodies which are the central government and the state governments. Both are obviously different from each other and have their own ways of descriptions, yet they are similar in many respects. The main differences between these two types are discussed in the latter sentences. The country is divided into different areas which can be called province or states. They are given powers to make their own trade agreements and laws. The central government provides all the money and infrastructure for state governments to run. What happens in the system is that the central governments take a load off their shoulders by moving different minister level powers such as trade, education and health to the local bodies since they can be more responsive to the changes and requirements in the local area. The state governments have to abide by the rules made by the central government but can make their own policies. Another simple difference between them is that a central government is run by the prime minister who is the leader of the whole country while a state government is headed by chief ministers who are the leaders of their state but work under the prime minister. State governments can make their own appointments at different posts, but there is always a managerial type position in every department which answers directly to the central government to maintain check and balance on the affairs. There are many other differences as well which will be discussed in a nutshell at the end, a detailed explanation of both these types is given in the paragraphs below.

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Comparison Chart

State Government Central Government
Role All other powers such as making decisions on education and health along with trade are transferred to the state governments Central government holds the power of defense, foreign policies, and interstate relations
Power Has to follow orders of the central government The Central government may or may not transfer powers to the state government
Head State governments are run either by chief ministers of governors Has one cabinet which is ruled by the prime minister or the president
Regulation A central government can outlaw any regulations made by state government A state government can stop any agreement which it considers unfavorable for them.

Definition of Central Government

A central government is the one which runs on two different levels. There is the central government which is responsible for the main tasks to execute the country and make sure its assets are protected while there is the smaller type of government where the country is divided into different states and are headed at the state level. The central government is responsible for the foreign affairs such as make trade agreements with other countries, creating policies which will benefit the people, providing revenue opportunities to the people and several states and make rules which the individuals in the country abide by. The laws made by the central government are such that they act as a reference for laws made in different provinces or states. A central government is not free to make its own decisions every time since it is dependent on the consent of the states to agree with the agreements which are being made. India is the biggest example of the centralized form of government where the country is ruled by the prime minister who has a cabinet but every state have their own chief minister, and they are free to make agreements with other nations which they deem beneficial.

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Definition of State Government

A state government is the type of government where the power lies with the local premiere. All the policies and agreements are made by the chief administration, and no one can argue about the manner in which they were made or the consequences. This is the best form of government for countries which are smaller in size and do not need administrative divisions to run the country. One cabinet is enough for running the state affairs. People elect their choices from the local area and then expect them to serve the people. A state assembly can be smaller or larger than the central government depending on the size of the province. They are not answerable to the central government and always have to answer back to the chief minister of the country. Pakistan is a good example of states administration where the power was recently shifted from the center to the states which are allowed to make their own choices while the central government provides them with revenue on a yearly basis. For legislation to pass the state government does not need an approval of the central government but always keep into consideration the country’s law to avoid any type of conflicts.

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Differences in a Nutshell

  1. Central government holds the power of defense, foreign policies, and interstate relations while all other powers such as making decisions on education and health along with trade are transferred to the state governments.
  2. The Central government may or may not transfer powers to the state government.
  3. State government itself cannot make any decisions until the powers are transferred to them.
  4. State government can make their own laws and regulations which are suitable for the people of that particular area while a central government makes laws which are for all the residents in the
  5. The Central government has one cabinet which is ruled by the prime minister or the president while state governments are run either by chief ministers of governors.
  6. Central government gives a good share of income to the state governments while state governments pay tax on different items to the central government.
  7. A central government can outlaw any regulations made by state governments while a state government can stop any agreement which it considers unfavorable for them.

Conclusion

There are different types of government which are there in the world, it will take into account the naming types of them and give an idea of people who are willing to know more about them. State and Central governments are different from each other and they have been laid out here for people to get a general idea about them.

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