Difference WikiPhysics

Difference Between Capacitor and Inductor

Main Difference

The main difference between the Capacitor and the Inductor is that Capacitor is involved in the opposition of the abrupt changes that occur in voltage (dV/dt ), whereas Inductor is involved in the opposition of the abrupt changes that occur in current (dI/dt).

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Capacitor vs. Inductor

Energy is believed to be stored in a capacitor in the form of an electric field. On the other hand, we store energy in an inductor in the form of a magnetic field.

The capacitor is known as the electrical component that comprises two conducting plates. An inductor, on the flip side, is simply considered as a wire that contains two terminals and is always nearly coiled.

A capacitor is the best device for the conduction of signals that have high-frequency. Inductor, on the other side, is referred to as the devices that show the best conduction at low-level frequencies.

We can also use a conductor for blocking out the signals that contain low-frequency or noise. On the other hand, high-frequency signals and oscillations are filtered out through the insulator.

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Comparison Chart

CapacitorInductor
The electrical component that is involved in the opposition of the abrupt changes that occur in voltage (dV/dt) is called a capacitor.The electrical component that is involved in the opposition of the abrupt changes that occur in current (dI/dt) is called an inductor.
Unit
A capacitor has the unit Farad (F).Inductor has the unit Henry (H).
Most Used Units
μF and pF are considered as the most commonly used units of the capacitor.mH is considered as the most commonly used unit of an inductor.
Types
Electrolyte, mica, ceramic, and tantalum are referred to as the types of capacitors.Multilayer, coupled inductor, and ceramic core are a few types of inductors.
Energy Storage
Energy is stored in the capacitors in the form of the electric field.Energy is stored in the inductors in the form of the magnetic field.
Energy Calculation
We calculate the stored energy of the capacitors in terms of voltages. i.e.
½ CV2.
We calculate the stored energy of the inductors in terms of current. i.e.
½ LI2.
Relation Between V & I
Voltage lags behind the Current in a pure capacitor by 90 degrees.Current lags behind the Voltage in a pure inductor by 90 degrees.
Current Flow
The flow of current does not take place through the plates of the capacitor.The flow of current in an inductor takes place through the coil.
Behavior in DC Circuit
In a DC circuit, capacitors are believed to act as insulators.In a DC circuit, inductors are believed to act as conductors.
Short Circuit
We suggest the capacitors as the short circuits for alternating current (AC).For the direct current (DC), inductors are believed to be equivalent to the short circuits.
Current Behavior in DC Circuit
When we add a capacitor in series with a resistor in a DC circuit, then initially, the current remains high, but later it falls to zero.When we add the inductor in series with a resistor in a DC circuit, then initially, the value of current remains small, but later it increases with the time.
Reactance Calculation
The reactance of capacitors is calculated as XC=1/2πfC.The reactance of inductors is calculated as XC=2πfL.
Steady-State Condition
In DC circuits, when there is a steady-state condition, the capacitor acts as an open circuit.In DC circuits, when there is a steady-state condition, the inductor behaves as a short circuit.
Applications
To smooth the output of a rectifier, we extensively use the capacitors in power supplies. They are also used in the electrical power systems for the power factor correction.We extensively use the inductors in Radio, Transformers, TV, and also as a current limiter.
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What is a Capacitor?

The capacitor is known as an electrical component. It is mainly composed of two conductors that are alienated by an insulator. An electric field is formed when we apply a potential difference to both the terminals, and thus we store the electric charges. We mainly find the applications of capacitors in the formation of electronic circuits.

We can use any non-conducting substance as a die electric substance. But, Mylar, porcelain, Teflon, cellulose, and mica are considered as some dielectric materials that are preferred by us. We define the capacitors on the basis of the materials that we choose, like dielectric or electrode.

In order to store electrical energy, we mainly use dielectric materials. In order to determine the value of the capacitor, we consider the kind of material used, the size of the terminals, and the distance between the two terminals.

We connect the capacitors in parallel unite as the resistors are connected in series, while we connect the capacitors in series unite as the resistors are connected in parallel. We mainly classify the capacitors into three types that are the tantalum, ceramic, and electrolytic.

Uses

  • In power supplies, we use the high Voltage Electrolytic capacitors.
  • An Axial Electrolytic capacitor is used by us for general purposes in a lower voltage of a smaller size where we need the principles of huge capacitance.
  • High Voltage disk ceramic capacitor is referred to as a small size capacitor that comprises the excellent tolerance characteristics and the value of capacitance.
  • For good reliability, we use the Metalised Polypropylene capacitor that is considered as a small size capacitor and has the values up to 2µF.

What is Inductor?

An inductor is also named as a coil or a choke and is referred to as a two-terminal device that is used by mankind to build various circuits. The storage of energy in a magnetic field is considered as the main function of an inductor. It is mainly composed of a wire that is generally twisted into a coil.

The current is temporarily stored in the coil when current flows through it. For direct current, an absolute inductor is believed to be equivalent to a short circuit, and hence an opposing force is granted to the flow of alternating current that is based on the frequency of the current.

The opposition that is offered to the flow of the current of an inductor has an association with the frequency that is comprised by the flowing current. We arrange the inductors in parallel unite as the resistors are arranged in parallel, and they are arranged in series unites as a resistor is arranged in series.

We mainly classify the inductors into three main types that include the Coupled inductors, Multilayer Inductors, Molded Inductors, and Ceramic Core Inductors.

Uses

  • We extensively use the inductors in the applications of alternating current (AC) like TV, radio, etc.
  • The main property of an inductor is chokes that we use in power supply circuits in which the AC mains supply is desired to be changed to a DC supply.
  • In automobile engines, we use the inductors that are responsible for making the spark that, in turn, catch fires the petrol.
  • In order to form a transformer, we unite the inductors that comprise a distributing magnetic lane.

Key Differences

  1. The electrical component that is involved in the opposition of the abrupt changes that occur in voltage (dV/dt) is called a capacitor, whereas the electrical component that is involved in the opposition of the abrupt changes that occur in current (dI/dt) is called an inductor.
  2. A capacitor has the unit Farad (F); on the other hand, the inductor has the unit Henry (H).
  3. μF and pF are considered as the most commonly used units of the capacitor. Conversely, mH is considered as the most commonly used unit of an inductor.
  4. Electrolyte, mica, ceramic and tantalum are referred to as the types of the capacitor, on the flip side, multilayer, coupled inductor, and ceramic core are a few types of the inductor.
  5. Energy is stored in the capacitor in the form of the electric field; on the other side, energy is stored in the inductor in the form of a magnetic field.
  6. We calculate the stored energy of the capacitor in terms of voltages. i.e., ½ CV2., while we calculate the stored energy of the inductor in terms of current. i.e., ½ LI2.
  7. Voltage lags behind the Current in a pure capacitor by 90 degrees: on the other hand, the current lags behind the Voltage in a pure inductor by 90 degrees.
  8. The flow of current does not take place through the plates of the capacitor, whereas the flow of current in an inductor takes place through the coil.
  9. In a DC circuit, the capacitor is believed to act as the insulators: on the flip side, in a DC circuit, an inductor is believed to act as the conductors.
  10. For alternating current (AC), the capacitor is suggested as the short circuits, while, for the direct current (DC), inductor is believed to be equivalent to the short circuits.
  11. When we add a capacitor in series with a resistor in a DC circuit, then initially the current remains high, but later it falls to zero: on the other hand, when we add the inductor in series with a resistor in a DC circuit, then initially the value of current remains small, but later it increases with the time.
  12. The reactance of the capacitor is calculated as XC=1/2πfC; on the flip side, the reactance of the inductor is calculated as XC=2πfL.
  13. In DC circuits, when there is a steady-state condition, the capacitor acts as an open circuit; on the other side, in DC circuits, when there is a steady-state condition, the inductor behaves as a short circuit.
  14. To smooth the output of a rectifier, we extensively use the capacitor in power supplies. It also used in the electrical power systems for the power factor correction; on the flip side, we extensively use the inductor in Radio, Transformers, TV, and also as a current limiter.

Comparison Video

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Conclusion

All of the above discussion concludes that capacitor is referred to as an electrical component that is involved in the opposition of the abrupt changes that occur in voltage (dV/dt), on the flip side, an inductor is referred to as an electrical component that is involved in the opposition of the abrupt changes that occur in current (dI/dt).

Harlon Moss

Harlon currently works as a quality moderator and content writer for Difference Wiki. He graduated from the University of California in 2010 with a degree in Computer Science. Follow him on Twitter @HarlonMoss