The main difference between binary fission and budding is that binary fission is the division of parent cells into two daughter cells by equally dividing the cytoplasm, whereas budding is the formation of a new organism from the surviving organism by the process of emergent out.
Binary Fission vs. Budding
Binary fission is the method of division of one organism into two other organisms, while budding is emerging of a whole new organism from the existing parent organism. Binary fission is considered a category of fission, whereas budding is considered a kind of vegetative propagation. In binary fission process, the parent organism is distributed equally into its two daughter organisms, but parent organism cannot be recognized after the division process; on the other hand, in budding, the parent remains identical after detaching the new bud, which is developed on the parent organism.
Binary fission is generally considered as symmetric division; on the contrary, budding is usually considered as an asymmetric division. Binary fission mainly occurs in paramecium, archaea, amoeba, and bacteria; conversely, budding occurs in plants, parasites, fungi, yeast, hydra, and metazoans like animals. Binary fission cannot be made artificial because it is a naturally occurring process, whereas budding can be brought artificially.
What is Binary Fission?
The detachment or division of a single parent organism into its two daughter organisms by equally giving cytoplasm to each daughter organism is called a binary fission process. Many prokaryotes such as bacteria undergo binary fission process, or in simple words, they reproduce or divide asexually through binary fission mechanism. Organelle, like mitochondria, which is present in eukaryotic cells, also undergoes binary fission process to raise the number of organelles inside the eukaryotic cell.
The foremost process which happens in binary fission is DNA replication. The bacterial chromosome, which is spherical and tightly packed, becomes unwound and goes through replication before the replication method. Then the two simulated bacterial chromosomes go to the opposite poles. After this, the cell enlarges in its length, and all the cell components like plasmids and ribosomes grow their amount in the cell.
To isolate the plasma membrane, the equatorial platter contracts. A fresh cell wall produces between the divided cells. Then the cytoplasm divides, and it is known as cytokinesis. The two recently formed daughter cells consist of an almost equal number of chromosomes, plasmids, ribosomes, and many other cellular components of the cytoplasm. The volume in the daughter cells is almost equal. Paramecium, Archaea, Amoeba, and Bacteria undergo binary fission.
Types of Binary Fission
- Irregular Binary Fission: Irregular binary fission can be seen in amoeba when cytokinesis occurs in the vertical level to the place where karyokinesis (a division of the nucleus).
- Longitudinal Binary Fission: Longitudinal binary fission observes in Euglena, where cytokinesis occurs at the longitudinal axis.
- Transverse Binary Fission: Transverse binary fission can be seen in paramecium like protozoans where cytokinesis occurs the diagonal axis laterally.
- Oblique Binary Fission: This can be seen as in ceratium.
What is Budding?
The asexual reproduction in which a bud-like extension of a new organism from the parent organism until it grew and matured enough to get separated from the parent is known as a budding method. The newly formed bud or organism is a duplicate clone to its parent. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baking yeast) forms a mother cell and small daughter cell through unequal budding.
Hydra present at a specific site forms a bud extension by frequent cell division. Buds when they started to grow, they are like a small outgrowth of the parent, and when they are matured, they get separated from the parent body as an independent organism. Internal budding occurs in Toxoplasma gondii, which reproduce asexually, and they form two daughter cells endopolygeny.
Endopolygeny refers to the formation of multiple organisms at one time through internal budding. Viral shedding is another type of budding. Some other type of budding is grafting of one plant into another, horticulture, etc. It occurs in Plants, Parasites, Fungi, Yeast, Hydra, and Metazoans like animals.
- Binary fission is the separation of a parent cell into two daughter cells, while budding is the production of an entire individual from the existing parent cell.
- Binary fission is a fission process, whereas budding is a type of artificial process like vegetative propagation.
- In the binary fission process, the daughter cell is different from the parent cell; on the other hand, in budding, the daughter cell is identical to the parent cell.
- Binary fission is a systematic division; on the contrary, budding is not symmetric division.
- Binary fission found in paramecium, archaea, amoeba, and bacteria; conversely, budding is very common in plants, parasites, fungi, yeast, hydra, and metazoans like animals.
- Binary fission cannot be used in the artificial process, whereas budding can be used in an artificial process.
The above discussion concludes that the binary fission is the division of parent cells into two daughter cells by equally dividing the cytoplasm, but parent cell cannot be recognized after the division process, whereas budding is the formation of a new organism from the surviving organism by the process of emergent out and the parent remains identical.