Atomic Orbital vs. Molecular Orbital
Describing the Electron Density
Effect of Nucleus
Types and Nomenclature
Affect of Electronic Configuration
Atomic Orbital vs. Molecular Orbital
An atomic orbital is considered as the region which consists of the highest possibility of finding an electron in an atom. In contrast, the molecular orbital is considered as the region consisting of the highest possibility of finding an electron of a molecule. Electron cloud around the atom is responsible for producing the atomic orbitals, whereas the fusion of atomic orbitals that consist of relatively the same energy is responsible for producing the molecular orbitals.
The type of atomic orbitals such as s, p, d, or f determined the shape of the atomic orbitals; on the flip side, the shape of the atomic orbitals that make up the molecule determines the shape of the molecular orbital. The Schrodinger equation is used in atomic orbitals, whereas, in molecular orbitals, the Linear combination of atomic orbitals is generally used.
The electron cloud in atomic orbitals can be affected by a single nucleus, while the electron cloud in molecular orbitals can be affected by the two or more nuclei. An atomic orbital is known to be monocentric as it is present nearby a single nucleus, while the molecular orbital is called polycentric as it is found nearby two or many different nuclei.
Atomic orbitals are found as a, p, d, and f, while molecular orbital consists of two types as bonding molecular orbitals or antibonding molecular orbitals. The electronic configuration within the atomic orbitals does not affect the constancy of an atom, whereas the electronic configuration in molecular orbital does affect the stability of the molecule.
What is Atomic Orbital?
The region, which consists of the highest possibility of finding an electron is known as the atomic orbital. The possibility of the position of an atomic electron can be explained by quantum mechanics. But quantum mechanics is not able to explain the particular energy of an electron at a certain quick of time. This particular energy is explained in Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.
The solutions of the Schrodinger equation are used to found the electron density of a given atom. A maximum of two electrons can be present in an atomic orbital. An atomic orbital is categorized by sublevels as s, p, d, and f. The orbitals of these sublevels contain different shapes.
The sublevel s orbital is found spherical and contains a maximum of two electrons and consists of only one sub-energy level. The shape of the p orbital is a dumbbell and contains up to six electrons. Three sub energy stages are present in it.
The d and f orbitals contain more composite shapes as d orbital contains five sub-energy levels and consist of up to 10 electrons. While the f orbital contains seven sub-energy levels and has a maximum of ten to fifteen electrons. The energy levels of orbitals are present in the direction of s<p<d<f.
What is Molecular Orbital?
The molecular orbital theory has explained the properties of molecular orbitals. The molecular orbital theory was first given by F. Hund and R.S. Mulliken in 1932.
According to the molecular orbital theory, when atoms joined together to give a molecule, the atomic orbitals which are overlapped usually lose their shape because of the influence of the nuclei. The novel orbitals that occur in molecules are now known as molecular orbitals.
The fusion of atomic orbitals that consist of relatively the same energy is responsible for producing the molecular orbitals. The molecular orbitals do not belong to only one atom in a molecule like in the atomic orbital, but it fits into the nuclei of all atoms which form the molecule. So, the nuclei of many different atoms act as a polycentric nucleus.
The final shape of the molecular orbitals is complicated because the shape of the atomic orbitals which construct the molecules usually determines the shape of the molecular orbitals. Accordance with Aufbau rule, the molecular orbitals are generally filled in order of low energy orbital towards a high energy orbital.