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Difference Between Point Mutation and Frameshift Mutation

Main Difference

The main difference between Point Mutation and Frameshift Mutation is that the Point Mutation is changed in the position of a single nucleotide in the frame of the gene, whereas the Frameshift Mutation is the change in position of more than one nucleotide that causes the change in the framework of the gene.

Point Mutation vs. Frameshift Mutation

Point mutation is the little change in the gene structure due to the disposition of single nucleotide; on the other hand, frameshift mutation is the change in the frame of the gene due to the disposition of the more than one nucleotide. Point mutation just needs only one nucleotide; on the flip side, frameshift mutation needs more than one nucleotide. Point mutation does not cause the frame change in the gene; on the opposite side, frameshift mutation causes the change in the frame of the gene.

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Point mutation mainly occurs by the process of substitution with other nucleotides; on the other side of the coin, frameshift mutation occurs by the process of insertion of other nucleotides or deletion of nucleotides from the gene. There is a change in the structure of the gene as a result of the point mutation; on the other hand, there is a change in the number of nucleotides from the gene as a result of the frameshift mutation. Point mutation results in the occurrence of diseases like sickle cell anemia; on the flip side, frameshift mutation results in the occurrence of diseases like Tay-Sachs.

Point mutation has fewer side effects, but in its comparison, frameshift mutation has more detrimental effects. Point mutation mainly affects only one amino acids, whereas frameshift mutation mainly affects all the related amino acids. Point mutation causes the change in the length of the DNA molecule; on the other hand, frameshift mutation does not cause the difference in the length of the molecule.

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Comparison Chart

Point MutationFrameshift Mutation
Point mutation changes in the position of a single nucleotide in the frame of the gene.A frameshift mutation is a change in the position of more than one nucleotide that causes the change in the framework of the gene.
Number of Base Pairs
It causes only one nucleotide alteration.It causes more than one nucleotide alteration.
Occurs Due To
Point mutation occurs due to the substitution process.Frameshift mutation occurs due to the insertion or deletion process.
Influence
It can be a missense, silent, or nonsense mutation.It can be a mutation that can alternate the open framework of protein.
Significance
Point mutation causes an alteration in the structure of the gene.Frameshift mutation causes an alteration in the number of nucleotides.
Diseases
Point mutation causes diseases like Sickle Cell Anemia.Frameshift mutation causes diseases like Tay-Sachs.
Detrimental Effects
It has fewer side effects.It has more side effects.
Length of DNA Molecule
It causes the change in length of DNA moleculeIt does not cause the change in length of DNA molecule
Number of Amino Acids
It affects only one amino acidsIt affects all the subsequent amino acids
Impact on Reading Frame
It does not impact the reading frame of the proteinIt impacts the reading frame of the protein
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What is Point Mutation?

Point mutation is the type of genetic mutation which alters the position of only one nucleotide by the process of substitution with the nucleotide of another gene molecule. It has fewer side effects, but the cause of this mutation results in very severe diseases like sickle cell anemia. It does not have any impact on the reading framework of the proteins.

It just involves only one base pair. It means it just needs only one amino acid mutation. Point mutation does not cause a change in the structure of proteins but causes a change in the length of the DNA molecule. It mainly affects the one genetic code that translates the genetic code and causes the formation of amino acids into proteins.

It causes the change in the sequence of only one nucleotide. The change in gene structure can cause the change in the sequence of nucleotides, which affects the genetic codes, which in turn changes the sequence of amino acids in proteins. As a result of all these processes, this may cause the formation of defective proteins because of which different severe diseases like sickle cell anemia.

What is Frameshift Mutation?

A frameshift mutation is the type of genetic mutation which alters the position of more than one nucleotides by the process of insertion of other nucleotides or by the process of deletion of two or more nucleotides from the gene structure. It generally does not changes the structure of the molecule, but it can alter the number of nucleotides in the DNA molecule.

The change in gene structure can cause the difference in the sequence of nucleotides, which affects the genetic codes, which in turn changes the course of amino acids in proteins. As a result of all these processes, this may cause the formation of defective proteins because of which different severe diseases like Tay-Sach diseases.

It is a particular type of process that impacts the reading framework of the proteins. That’s why it is called a frameshift mutation. The significance of frameshift mutation is the change in the number of amino acids in a protein molecule.

Key Differences

  1. Point mutation is the change in the sequence of single nucleotides; on the other hand, frameshift mutation is the change in the sequence of more than one nucleotides.
  2. Point mutation involves only one amino acid; on the flip side, frameshift mutation involves more than one amino acid.
  3. Point mutation does not impact the frame of the proteins; on the opposite side, frameshift mutation impacts the reading framework of protein.
  4. Point mutation increases the length of the DNA molecule; on the other side of the coin, frameshift mutation does not change the length of the DNA molecule.
  5. Point mutation has less detrimental effects; on the other hand, frameshift mutation has more detrimental effects.
  6. Point mutation causes the alteration of gene structure; on the flip side, frameshift mutation causes the alteration in the number of nucleotides.
  7. Point mutation results in severe diseases like sickle cell anemia; on the opposite side, frameshift mutation results in severe diseases like Tay-Sach diseases.
  8. Point mutation influences the silent, missense, nonsense mutations; on the other side of the coin, frameshift mutation influences the alteration in the open reading framework of proteins.
  9. Point mutation mainly occurs by the process of substitution; on the other hand, frameshift mutation mainly occurs by the process of insertion or deletion.
  10. Point mutation is the transition or transversions; on the flip side, frameshift mutation is not the transition or transversions.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that point mutation is the mutation of only one amino acids; on the other hand, frameshift mutation is the mutation of all the subsequent amino acids.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White