Chemistry

Difference Between Schottky Defect and Frenkel Defect

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Main Difference

The main difference between Schottky Defect and Frenkel Defect is that Schottky Defect minimizes the mass of the crystal; on the other hand, Frenkel Defect does not have any effect on the mass of the crystal.

Schottky Defect vs. Frenkel Defect

The compactness of the solid is condensed by Schottky defect, while Frenkel defect does not affect solid density to be compact. When Schottky defect happens, it reduces the mass of the lattice; on the other hand, when Frenkel defect happens, the mass of the lattice always remains constant.

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The Schottky defect is created when the different ions or atoms leave the lattice; on the contrary, different atoms or ions remain present inside the Frenkel defect even after leaving their positions. Schottky defect only happens with similar size ions that are also present in the lattice; conversely, Frenkel defect happens with different sizes of ions having large differences in their sizes present inside the lattice.

The production of two vacancies occurs in one Schottky defect, whereas the production of only one vacancy and one self-interstitial defect occurs in one Frenkel defect. The Schottky defect can be present in potassium bromide, potassium chloride, silver bromide, thorium dioxide, cerium dioxide, sodium chloride; on the other hand, Frenkel defect can be present in silver bromide, zinc sulfide, and silver chloride.

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Comparison Chart

Schottky DefectFrenkel Defect
The loss of atoms from a crystal solid in stoichiometric elements leads to the occurrence of Schottky defect.The loss of small ion or one atom from the crystal solid leads to the occurrence of Frenkel defect.
Density
The density of the solid becomes condensed.It does not affect solid density to be compact.
Mass
The mass of the lattice reduces.The mass of the lattice always remains constant.
Leaving Species
The different ions or atoms leave the lattice.Different atoms or ions remain present even after leaving their positions.
Size of Ions
It only happens with similar size ions that are also present in the lattice.It happens with different sizes of ions having large differences in their sizes present inside the lattice.
Formation of Vacancies
There are two vacancies forms in one Schottky defect.The production of only one vacancy and one self-interstitial defect occurs in one Frenkel defect.
Found In
Potassium bromide, potassium chloride, silver bromide, thorium dioxide, cerium dioxide, sodium chlorideSilver bromide, zinc sulphide, and silver chloride
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What is Schottky Defect?

Schottky defect refers to the sort of defect point in which the loss of atoms from a crystal solid in stoichiometric elements leads to the occurrence of Schottky defect. This defect phenomenon was titled after the name of Walter H. Schottky. When one building block leaves the framework, this could result in defects, and this leaving of building blocks such as atoms or ions forms one vacancy in the solid by one Schottky defect.

Because the loss happens in stoichiometric elements, the overall change is considered as neutral. The stoichiometric elements are formed of anions and cations present in an equal number of ratios. For instance, in sodium chloride, the cation Na+ and anion Cl- when it leaves the structure of sodium chloride, then it causes Schottky defect.

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The compactness of the solid is condensed by Schottky defect, and this defect is mainly present in ionic compounds. Many times, the Schottky defect is present in crystals having almost equal sizes of ions. The Schottky defect can be present in potassium bromide, potassium chloride, silver bromide, thorium dioxide, cerium dioxide, sodium chloride.

What is Frenkel Defect?

Frenkel defect refers to the kind of defect point in which the loss of a small ion and an atom happens that causes the vacant area in the solid crystal structure. This vacant area is known as Frenkel disorder or Frenkel pair defect. These names of defects present in structures of solid are named after the person who first discovered is Yaakov Frenkel.

Different atoms or ions remain present inside the Frenkel defect even after leaving their positions, but if one cation leaves the lattice, then it forms an interstitial site which is present near the vacant area in Frenkel defect. Frenkel defect does not affect solid density to be compact because the atoms or ions present in it does not leave the lattice but occupy a nearby space in the lattice.

The Frenkel defect is mostly present in ionic compounds, and unlike Schottky defect, it contains the different sizes of ions having large differences in their sizes present inside the lattice. The production of only one vacancy and one self-interstitial defect occurs in one Frenkel defect, so it means it contains an equal ratio of interstitial sites and defects in the lattice. Frenkel defects can be present in silver bromide, zinc sulfide, and silver chloride.

Key Differences

  1. The Schottky defect causes the condensation of the density of the solid, while a Frenkel defect does not condense the density of the solid.
  2. The Schottky defect causes the reduction of the mass of the lattice; on the other hand, when Frenkel defect does not causes the reduction of the mass of the lattice.
  3. The Schottky defect occurs when there is a removal of the different ions from the lattice structure; on the contrary, Frenkel defect occurs when there is a change in the position of the different ions.
  4. The Schottky defect occurs only with the same size of the ions that are present in the lattice; conversely, Frenkel defect occurs with the different large sizes of the ions that are present in the lattice.
  5. In one Schottky defect, there is a production of two vacancies, whereas, in one Frenkel defect, there is a production of one vacancy.
  6. The Schottky defect can occur in potassium bromide, potassium chloride, silver bromide, thorium dioxide, cerium dioxide, sodium chloride; on the other hand, Frenkel defect can occur in silver bromide, zinc sulfide, and silver chloride.

Conclusion

Above discussion concludes that the Schottky defect minimizes the mass of the crystal, and it is created when the different ions or atoms leave the lattice, whereas Frenkel defect does not have any effect on the mass of the crystal and created when different atoms or ions remain present inside the Frenkel defect even after leaving their positions.

Harlon Moss

Harlon currently works as a quality moderator and content writer for Difference Wiki. He graduated from the University of California in 2010 with a degree in Computer Science. Follow him on Twitter @HarlonMoss

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