Difference Between Valency and Oxidation State

Main Difference

The main difference between valency and oxidation state is that valency is the digit of electrons present in the valence shell of an atom, whereas oxidation state is the ability of an atom to lose or gain electron within a compound of an atom.

Valency vs. Oxidation State

Valency is the integer of electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom, whereas oxidation state is the number of charges gain or lost by an atom. Valency doesn’t indicate the electrical charge in a compound; on the other hand, oxidation state indicates the charge on an atom of compound. Valency determines the number of bonds makes by an atom, while the oxidation state doesn’t indicate any types of bonds. Valency of the pure element is the number electrons present in the outermost shell which it gains or losses, whereas oxidation state of the pure element is zero due to its neutrality. Valency is used to indicate the number of electrons in valance shell, whereas oxidation state is used to indicate the charge on an atom Valency doesn’t have any charge indication, whereas oxidation state is indicating the charge on an atom. Valency of an atom is not changed, whereas oxidation state may vary according to the compound. Valency is to indicate the number of bonds, whereas the oxidation state is not indicating this behavior.

Comparison Chart

ValencyOxidation state
It is the integer of electrons present in the outermost shellIt is the number of electron gain or lost by an atom within a compound
Electrical Charge
It doesn’t indicate the chargeThe charge indicates it
Bond Indication
It indicates the number of bonds of the atom can makesIt doesn’t indicate the number of bonds making by the atom
The Behavior of Pure Element
Valency of the pure element is its number of electrons present in the outermost shellThe oxidation state of pure elements is zero
Changing of Number
The valency number is no change in an atomThe oxidation number of an atom is changing according to the presence in different compounds
Electronic Configuration
Based on individual electronic charge configurationsIt is the calculated value
Zero Value
Valency can never be zeroOxidation state can be zero
Variations
Valency doesn’t vary in a compoundIt may vary in a compound

What is Valency?

Valency referred to as the extreme number of electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom. It is denoted by charge because every atom has its electron in its valance shell. Its number also indicates the number of bonds by which it can make with other elements to satisfy its charge. Valency of pure elements also having some charge due to its presence of electron. The valency of an atom does not change either the atom makes bond or not. The valency of an atom is the indication of how much an atom gains or lose an electron. Every group element has the same valency. Valency is used to determine the valance shell electrons. Valency is considered as an electrical charge present in an atom. Valency is the numeral indicator. Valance shell electron may be changed or remains the same. Valency of the noble gases elements is zero because the noble gases already complete its valance shell and become stable. Valency is the property of an insulated atom. Valency is the number of bonds that an atom makes to attain stability. Valency is based on individual charge electronic configuration. Valency can never be zero. For example, the valency of sodium is one and valency of magnesium is two because they are present in the group 1A and 2A.

What is Oxidation State?

It is the maximum number of electrons that an atom gains or losses. The is denoted by charge above an atom. The oxidation number doesn’t give the information about several bonds it can make with other elements. The different nature of an atom has a different oxidation number. It is the presence of electrical charge on an atom in a different compound. The oxidation number of a pure or neutral element is zero. The oxidation number is the particular number of the electron that an atom can gain or lose. There are various rules to find the oxidation number of an element. The element present in different compounds have different oxidation number like oxygen atom has oxidation number -2 and in peroxides +1 and superoxide, it is indicated by -½. Oxidation number referred simply as the number of electron gain or lost by an atom. It is written in the upper right side of the symbol with charge. Oxidation state is simply the indication of electrons that atom used to become stable. The oxidation number of an element is the number assign to the element. The oxidation state the calculated number in an atom. Oxidation state can be zero. The increase in oxidation number is called oxidation while the decrease in oxidation number is called reduction.

Key Differences

  1. Valency is the number of the electron in the valence shell, whereas the oxidation number is the indication of the maximum number that an atom can gain or loss.
  2. Valency is not indicated by a charge; on the other hand, the oxidation state is indicated by an electrical charge.
  3. Valency tells us the number of bonds; conversely, oxidation state doesn’t indicate the number of bonds.
  4. Valency of the pure element is different, which could be any charge; on the flip side, the oxidation state of pure element is zero.
  5. Valency of an atom is not changed, whereas the oxidation number is varying according to the presence in different compounds.
  6. Valency does not vary in a compound, whereas the oxidation state of an element varies.
  7. Valency can never be zero, whereas the oxidation can be zero.

Conclusion

Valency is the electron number in valance orbital, whereas oxidation state is the electron gaining or losing the capability of an atom.

Harlon Moss

Harlon currently works as a quality moderator and content writer for Difference Wiki. He graduated from the University of California in 2010 with a degree in Computer Science. Follow him on Twitter @HarlonMoss

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