Biology

Difference Between Transpiration and Translocation

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Main Difference

The main difference between Transpiration and Translocation is that Transpiration is a process that takes place when water evaporates from leaves of plants in the form of vapors, whereas Translocation is the transport of minerals and synthesized products within the plant to different areas.

Transpiration vs. Translocation

Transpiration is a process of water evaporation from leaves of plants in the form of water vapors, whereas translocation is the process of transportation of minerals and synthesized products within the plant to different areas. In transpiration, the water vapors evaporate from leaves of plants; their direction is always against gravity; however, translocation can take place in or opposite direction of gravity as it is the transportation of minerals and synthesized products within different parts of the plant.

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Transpiration involves only xylem cells for carrying out the process of transpiration; on the other hand, the process of translocation can be carried out by both the xylem and phloem cells of plants for carrying out their transportation. Transpiration is a process of water evaporation, and thus it involves only water as a carrier, on the flip side, translocation is a process of transportation of synthesized products within the plant, and thus it involves synthesized product as sucrose.

Transpiration requires sunlight to carry out their process of water evaporation as stomata open only in the presence of sunlight, and thus the process of transpiration takes place; contrary to this, translocation does not involve stomata for carrying out the process of transportation that’s why it can be carried out by plants in the day or the night, i.e., in the absence of sunlight.

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Transpiration requires a stomatal opening in leaves of plants for evaporating water vapors from leaves of plants, whereas translocation does not require stomatal openings as it is an internal process of transportation. Transpiration is a process that impacts the environment in the surrounding by cooling down the temperature, whereas translocation does not involve water evaporation as being an internal process of a plant and does not impact the external environment from its process.

Comparison Chart

TranspirationTranslocation
It is a process of water evaporation in plants in the form of vapors.It is a process of the transportation of minerals and synthesized products in the plants.
Occurrence
It occurs in leaves of plants from stomata.It occurs within the plants from one point towards another one.
Direction
Vapors evaporate from leaves of plants to the opposite direction of gravity.It can take place in or the opposite direction of gravity.
Cells Involved
It involves only xylem cells for carrying out the process of transpiration.It can be carried out by both the xylem and phloem cells of plants.
Transporting Ingredient
Transportation of waterTransportation of sucrose
Sunlight
Plants require sunlight to carry out the process, that’s why it occurs only in the day time.Plants don’t require daylight to carry out this process; that’s why it can occur both day and night.
Environmental Impact
Transpiration is a process that helps in cooling down the temperature.Translocation is an internal process of a plant.
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What is Transpiration?

Transpiration is referred to as a movement of water vapors through the stoma of leaves to the atmosphere. It is an essential process that has to take place via leaves of the plants. The atmospheric moisture comprises of this evaporation that is carried out by plants. Roughly it is estimated that this process contributes about 10% of the total moisture in the atmosphere. Stomas are present on the underside of the leaves.

Plants also regulate the transpiration to tackle drought and extreme dry situations. These stomas are of their main importance here, as it modulates the process of transpiration by adjustment of the size of its opening. The cells involved in regulating the size of opening pores are called guard cells. It is also similar to the process of guttation in which some plants excrete xylem sap on the side curves of the leaves.

The xylem cells of the plants carry evaporated water from the soil via route cells. This water is useful in the process of photosynthesis. The residual water from the process of photosynthesis evaporates from the stoma of leaves. It can also occur via stoma cells on the stems. Transpiration acts as a prime pulling force as it helps to create a flow in the vessels, which later helps in the transportation of fluids via the process of translocation. Thus it allows the plant to take more minerals and nutrients from the soil along with the water.

Transpiration also helps plants in cooling down themselves. In the process of transpiration, the water vapors evaporate from leaves of plants while having their direction against gravity. Transpiration involves only xylem cells for carrying out the process of evaporation, and being a process for water evaporation involves only water as its ingredient for transportation. Transpiration requires sunlight to carry out their process as stomata open only in the presence of sunlight. Transpiration is a process that impacts the environment in the surrounding by cooling down the temperature.

What is Translocation?

Translocation refers to the process of movement of nutrients and synthesized products from leaves of the plants to other parts of the plant body. Plants produce organic substances inside their leaves by the process of photosynthesis. Glucose is the resultant of the process of photosynthesis, which is later converted to sucrose for storing it temporarily.

During the process of photosynthesis in the day time in the presence of sunlight, this sucrose is continuously stacked for temporary storage. Then at night, this stacked sucrose is loaded to the phloem. This phloem then transports the sucrose throughout the plant body. This sucrose and other organic components that are transported by the phloem are called as the assimilates.

Assimilates are uploaded by the phloem at source, and later these are released at the sink. The sieve elements of the phloem transport the assimilate. By joining the ends with each sieve elements, they form a continuous stream. It leads to a decrease in the water potential of the sieve element at the source as assimilates actively load at the source. As water enters the sieve cells from the xylem, it increases the pressure inside the sieve element and pulls the contents through the column. At the location of the sink, this process differs as removal of assimilates the pressure here reduces at the column. This pressure difference leads to the flow of assimilates and acts as the driving force for the passage of these components.

Translocation is the process of transportation of minerals and synthesized products within the plant to different areas that can take place in or opposite direction of gravity as it is the transportation of minerals and synthesized products within different parts of the plant. The Process of translocation can be carried out by both the xylem and phloem cells of plants for carrying out their transportation. It is an internal process of transportation of synthesized products in the plants that involve synthesized product as Sucrose.

Unlike transpiration, as discussed above, it does not involve stomata for carrying out the process of transportation; that’s why it can be carried out by plants in the day or the night, i.e., in the absence of sunlight. Translocation does not involve water evaporation as being an internal process of a plant and does not impact the external environment from its process.

Key Differences

  1. Transpiration is a process of water evaporation, whereas translocation is the process of transportation of minerals and synthesized products.
  2. In Transpiration, when water vapors evaporate from leaves of plants, their direction is always against gravity; however, translocation can take place in any direction in or opposite to the direction of gravity.
  3. Transpiration involves only xylem cells for carrying out the process; on the other hand, the process of translocation can be carried out by both the xylem and phloem cells of plants for carrying out their transportation.
  4. Transpiration is a process that involves only water as an ingredient; on the flip side, translocation is a process of transportation, and thus it involves synthesized products as Sucrose.
  5. Transpiration requires the presence of sunlight for successfully carrying out their process of water evaporation; contrary to this, translocation does not require sunlight carrying out the process of transportation; that’s why it can be carried out by plants in the day or the night.
  6. Transpiration requires a stomatal opening in the leaves of plants for evaporation of water vapors from leaves of plants, whereas translocation does not require stomatal openings as it is an internal process of transportation.
  7. Transpiration impacts the environment of the surrounding by cooling down the temperature, while translocation does not involve water evaporation; thus, it does not impact the external environment from its process.

Conclusion

Transpiration is a process that takes place in the presence of sunlight as water evaporates from leaves of plants in the form of vapors, whereas Translocation is the process that does not require sunlight and involves transportation of minerals and synthesized products within the plant to different areas.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White

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