Replication means the action of reproducing or copying something. Regarding biology, we use replication word in the reproduction or copying of DNA in the cell to produce its identical copies.There are two types of cells: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes are those cells which do not have a definite nucleus while eukaryotes are the cells which have a definite nucleus inside the cell. Both cells show replication of DNA, but it differs from each other. One of the major difference between prokaryotic DNA replication and eukaryotic DNA replication is that prokaryotic replication occurs inside the cytoplasm of the cell whereas, eukaryotic replication of DNA occur inside the nucleus. Some of their steps also differ from each other. Moreover, prokaryotic DNA replication has a single origin while eukaryotic DNA replication has numerous origins. Replication in Prokaryotes is faster than in eukaryotes. Prokaryotic may take 40 minutes whereas eukaryotic may extend up to 400 hours.
What is Prokaryotic DNA Replication?
Prokaryotic DNA replication is the process through which DNA of prokaryotic cell reproduce itself. It occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell because cell does not have a definite nucleus in it. Origin of prokaryotic DNA replication is single. In prokaryotic DNA replication, replication occurs at one point. Prokaryotic DNA replication has a single origin. Origin of replication is formed of 150-200 nucleotides. The prokaryotic chromosome has only one replication, and one replication bubble is formed during prokaryotic DNA replication. In this length of Okazaki fragments are 1000-2000 nucleotides. Replication is very fast and rapid as about 2000 base pairs per second. DNA polymerase 3 carries out initiation and elongation as well. DNA repair and filling are performed by DNA polymerase 1. RNA primer is also removed by DNA polymerase 1. DNA gyrase is needed.
What is Eukaryotic DNA Replication?
Eukaryotic DNA replication is the process through which DNA of eukaryotic cell reproduce itself. It occurs inside the nucleus of the cell because the cell has a definite nucleus in it. Origin of eukaryotic DNA replication is multiple. In eukaryotic DNA replication, replication occurs at many points. Origin of replication is formed of 150 nucleotides. Many replication forks are formed in each replicating DNA. Eukaryotic DNA have a large number of replications (50,000 or more), but it is not sudden. Okazaki fragments are short (100-200) nucleotides long. Replication in eukaryotes is slower than in prokaryotes; it is 100 base pairs per second. DNA polymerase α initiate the replication process, whereas elongation is carried out by DNA polymerase δ and ε. RNA primer in eukaryotic replication is removed by DNA polymerase β. One thing to be noted here is that DNA gyrase is not needed in it.
Prokaryotic DNA Replication vs. Eukaryotic DNA Replication
- Prokaryotic DNA replication has a single origin while eukaryotic DNA replication has multiple origins.
- Prokaryotic DNA replication is faster than eukaryotic DNA replication. Prokaryotic DNA replication takes 40 minutes, whereas eukaryotic DNA replication may take up to 400 hours or more.
- Prokaryotic DNA replication occurs in cytoplasm whereas eukaryotic DNA replication occurs in the nucleus.
- Prokaryotic DNA replication enzymes are different from eukaryotic.
- Prokaryotic DNA replication has a rate of 2000 base pairs per second addition, while eukaryotic DNA replication has a rate of 100 base pairs per second.
- Prokaryotic DNA replication has 1000-2000 nucleotides long Okazaki fragments, on the other hand, eukaryotic DNA replication has 100-200 nucleotides long Okazaki.