Difference WikiBiology

Difference Between Natural Selection and Artificial Selection

Main Difference

The main difference between Natural Selection and Artificial Selection is that Natural Selection is a natural process to select the fittest one, whereas Artificial Selection is an artificial process to select the organism with desired characters.

Natural Selection vs. Artificial Selection

Natural selection is a natural process of selecting the fittest individual in this universe that can survive in all types of situations. On the other side, artificial selection is a type of artificial technique that is used to select the organism with the desired characters, and it is also recognized as selective breeding. An organism that is selected through natural selection has more chances of survival. On the other hand, an artificially selected organism has low chances of survival. The new breed may be at risk due to different characters.

ADVERTISEMENT

Natural selection is a very slow process that takes a long time to complete and is controlled by nature. On the other side, artificial selection is a fast process that is controlled artificially by humans according to their needs. Natural selection takes place on all the organisms of the universe. On the flip side, artificial selection is used for some selective organisms.

Natural selection depends upon adaptable character. It selects the organism that can cope with every type of situation. On the other hand, artificial selection depends upon the required characters. It selects the organism with desired or useful characters. Natural selection causes the transformation of the complete population of a species. On the other side, the artificial selection causes the formation of a new specie or variety.

ADVERTISEMENT

Natural selection is divided into three different types, i.e., Directional selection, stabilizing selection, and disruptive selection. On the flip side, artificial selection is not divided further. Natural selection has increased the diversity of nature. On the other hand, artificial selection is mostly used for economic purposes.

Natural selection takes place in each and every population of this universe. On the flip side, artificial selection mostly takes place in domestic animals. For example, Darwin’s finches evolve through a species of birds on the Galapagos Islands. On the other side, artificial selection mostly takes place on a pet or domestic animal to get the required benefit from the organism, i.e., milk or meat, etc.

ADVERTISEMENT

Comparison Chart

Natural SelectionArtificial Selection
A natural process of selecting the fittest individual in this universe that can survive in all types of situations is known as natural selection.A type of artificial technique that is used for selecting the organisms with desired characters is known as artificial selection.
Also Known As
There is no other name for natural selection.It is also recognized as selective breeding.
Type of Process
It is a type of natural process controlled by nature itself.It is an artificial process that is controlled by humans.
Rate of Process
It is a very slow process that takes hundreds of years.It is a fast process that may complete within a few years.
Chances of Survival
A naturally selected organism has more chances of survival.An artificially selected organism has low chances of survival as the new breed may be at risk due to different characters.
Type of Organisms
It takes place on all the organisms of the universe.Artificial selection is used for some selective organisms only.
Characters
Natural selection depends upon the adaptable characters that can cope with every type of situation.Artificial selection depends upon the required characters.
Causes
It causes the transformation of the complete population of a species.The artificial selection causes the formation of a new specie or variety.
Importance
This selection has increased the diversity of nature.It is mostly used for economic purposes.
Types
It is divided into three different types, i.e., Directional selection, stabilizing selection, and disruptive selection.Artificial selection has no types.
Examples
Darwin finches evolve through a species of bird on the Galapagos Islands due to natural selection.Artificial selection mostly takes place on the pet or domestic animals to get the required benefits from them, i.e., milk or meat, etc.

What is Natural Selection?

Natural selection is a natural process of selecting the fittest individual in this universe that can survive in all types of situations. Charles Darwin was the first who gave the concept of natural selection in 1859. He presented the theory of natural selection. According to this theory, it is a nature controlled process that selects the best-suited characters without the intervention of humans and causes evolution.

Natural selection is the process that favors the fittest individual of a population to survive, reproduce, and increase its numbers. On the other side, the individuals that are not strong enough to cope with the harsh environment and any other variations, cannot grow or reproduce and finished completely. Natural selection takes place on all the organisms of this universe, i.e., either aquatic, terrestrial, or arboreal, etc.

Natural selection is a very slow process that takes hundreds of years. Every descendant of the ancestors has better-adapted conditions than the earlier one. For example, earlier giraffes have a short neck. They were not able to get their food from trees. Gradually, within many years, they developed long necks to increase their survival rate. Now, there are long neck giraffes in the world that can easily get their food through long trees. So, it may produce new species.

Components of Natural Selection

  • Organisms of a population should have variations between them.
  • These variations should be able to transfer into the next generations, i.e., heritable.
  • The population growth rate must be high.
  • Organisms of the population should have different reproduction and survival rates.

Types

  • Directional Selection: It is a type of natural selection that selects any extreme condition of the population.
  • Stabilizing Selection: It is a type of natural selection that selects the intermediate condition of the population.
  • Disruptive Selection: It is a form of natural selection that chooses both the extreme conditions of the population.

What is Artificial Selection?

Artificial selection is a type of artificial technique that is used for selecting the organisms with desired characters. It is also recognized as selective breeding. Artificial selection is an artificial process that is controlled by humans. It is a fast process that may complete within a few years. The artificial selection causes the formation of a new specie or variety.

Artificial selection is mostly used for economic purposes. So, it acts upon limited organisms, i.e., mostly domestic organisms. An artificially selected organism has low chances of survival as the new breed may be at risk due to different characters.

Artificial selection can be explained better with the help of an example, i.e., if we need a cow with some special characters, i.e., more milk production and meat, we will cross-breed the different cows with our desired characters. This cross-breed will give rise to a new variety with different characters. This new breed has low chances of survival, but if it survives, it will show over the required results.

Nowadays, artificial selection is widely used due to the high demand for good quality vegetables, fruits, and pets, for example, cows, sheep, dogs, and buffalo, etc. New varieties are arising every day for the benefit of mankind.

Key Differences

  1. A natural process of selecting the fittest individual in this universe that can survive in all types of situations is known as natural selection, whereas a type of artificial technique that is used for selecting the organisms with desired characters is known as artificial selection.
  2. Natural selection does not have any other name. On the other hand, artificial selection is also recognized as selective breeding.
  3. Natural selection is a type of natural process controlled by nature itself. Conversely, artificial selection is an artificial process that is controlled by humans.
  4. Natural selection is a very slow process that takes hundreds of years. On the flip side, artificial selection is a fast process that may complete within a few years.
  5. A naturally selected organism has more chances of survival. On the other side, an artificially selected organism has low chances of survival as the new breed may be at risk due to different characters.
  6. Natural selection takes place on all the organisms of the universe, while the artificial selection is used for some selective organisms only.
  7. Natural selection depends upon an adaptable character that can cope with every type of situation. On the other hand, artificial selection depends upon required characters, i.e., desired features.
  8. Natural selection causes the transformation of the complete population of a species, whereas the artificial selection causes the formation of a new specie or variety.
  9. Natural selection has increased the diversity of nature. On the other side, artificial selection is mostly used for economic purposes.
  10. Natural selection is divided into three different types, i.e., Directional selection, stabilizing selection, and disruptive selection. On the flip side, artificial selection is not divided into types.
  11. Darwin finches evolve through a species of bird on the Galapagos Islands due to natural selection. On the other hand, artificial selection mostly takes place on a pet or domestic animal to get the required benefit from them, i.e., milk or meat, etc.

Comparison Video

YouTube video

Conclusion

The above discussion summarizes that natural selection is a nature controlled process that favors the fittest and effects all the organisms of this universe. On the other side, artificial selection is a man controlled technique to get the selected organisms with desired characters.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White