Difference Between Monoecious and Dioecious

Main Difference

The main difference between the monoecious and the dioecious is that Monoecious organisms have both female and male reproductive organs present in the same individual, whereas Dioecious organisms have male and female organs in separate individuals.

Monoecious vs. Dioecious

On the basis of the presence of sex organs, organisms are divided into two types, i.e., monoecious and dioecious. These terms are used to discuss the reproductive behavior of plants. Monoecious are bisexual organisms, i.e. they have both male and female organs. On the other hand, dioecious is the unisexual organism, i.e. they have male and female reproductive organs on separate individuals. About 90% of species of plants are bisexual and called perfect flowers. They have both staminate (stamen or male part) and pistillate (carpels or female part) present on the same flower. On the flip side, dioecious plants have male and female flowers on separate plants.

Monoecious plants are capable of both cross and self-pollination whereas, dioecious plants are capable of only cross-pollination. All monoecious plants can produce seeds due to the presence of female flowers. On the other side, in dioecious plants, the seed is produced by female plants only. Monoecious plants show low genetic variations and more homozygosity due to self-pollination while there are more genetic variations and increased heterozygosity in dioecious plants due to cross-fertilization. Earthworms, slugs, and corn, etc. are examples of monoecious organisms. On the other side, mammals, birds, and papaya, etc. are examples of dioecious organisms.

Comparison Chart

MonoeciousDioecious
A type of organism that has both female and male reproductive organs present on the same individual is known as monoecious.A type of organism that has female and male reproductive organs present on separate individuals is known as dioecious.
Literal Meaning
The word “Monoecious” literally means “one house.”The word “Dioecious” literally means “two houses.”
Sex
They are bisexual.They are unisexual, i.e., either female or male.
Type Of Flowers
Both male and female flowers in monoecious are on the same plant.Male and female flowers are present on different plants.
Gametes
In monoecious plants, both female and male gametes are produced on the same plant.In dioecious plants, male and female gametes are produced on separate plants.
Type Of Reproduction
They show uniparental reproduction.Dioecious shows biparental reproduction.
Pollination
Monoecious organisms show both self and cross-fertilization.Dioecious plants are capable of only cross-fertilization.
Genetic Variations
Monoecious plants show low genetic variations and more homozygosity due to self-pollination.There are more genetic variations and increased heterozygosity in dioecious plants due to cross-fertilization.
Reproduction In Isolation
Monoecious plants can easily reproduce, even in isolation.Dioecious plants cannot reproduce in isolation.
Seed Production
All monoecious plants can produce seeds due to the presence of the female flower.In dioecious plants, a seed is produced by female plants only.
Examples Of Plants
Squash, walnut, oak, hazel, and corn are common monoecious plants.Asparagus, Biloba trees, Papaya, Marijuana (Cannabis), willow, holly, Ginkgo, and poplar are dioecious plants.
Examples Of Animals
Jellyfish, earthworms, and slugs, etc. are examples of monoecious animals.Reptiles, insects, mammals, and birds are examples of dioecious animals.

What is Monoecious?

In the word “Monoecious,” Mono means “one,” and this term literally means “one house.” It is a type of organism with both male and female reproductive organisms present on the same individual. So, they are bisexual and show uniparental reproduction. Both female and male gametes are formed in the same organism and may fuse by self or cross-fertilization. Monoecious plants show less genetic variations and more homozygosity due to self-pollination. Monoecy is more commonly found in Squash, walnut, oak, hazel, corn, jellyfish, planarians, and slugs, etc.

What is Dioecious?

In the word “Dioecious,” di means “two,” and this term literally means “two houses.” It is a type of organism with male and female reproductive organisms on different individuals. So, they are unisexual and show biparental reproduction. Both female and male gametes are formed in different organisms and may fuse by only cross-fertilization. So, there are more genetic variations and increased heterozygosity in dioecious plants. Dioecy is more commonly found in Marijuana (Cannabis), Asparagus, Biloba trees, Papaya, willow, holly, Ginkgo, Mammals, reptiles, insects, and birds, etc.

Key Differences

  1. A type of organism that has both male and female reproductive organs on the same individual is known as monoecious, whereas a type of organism that has male and female reproductive organs on separate individuals is known as dioecious.
  2. The word “Monoecious” literally means “one house” on the other hand, the word “Dioecious” literally means “two houses.”
  3. Monoecious are bisexual; conversely, dioecious are unisexual, i.e., either male or female.
  4. In monoecious plants, both female and male flowers exist on the same plant on the flip side. In dioecious plants, female and male flowers are present on separate plants.
  5. In monoecious plants, both male and female gametes are produced on the same plant while, in dioecious plants, male and female gametes are produced on separate plants.
  6. Monoecious organisms show uniparental reproduction. On the other hand, dioecious organisms show biparental reproduction.
  7. Monoecious organisms show both self and cross-fertilization, whereas dioecious plants are capable of only cross-fertilization.
  8. Monoecious plants show low genetic variations and more homozygosity due to self-pollination while there are more genetic variations and increased heterozygosity in dioecious plants due to cross-fertilization.
  9. Monoecious plants can easily reproduce, even in isolation. On the other hand, dioecious plants cannot reproduce in isolation.
  10. All monoecious plants can produce seeds due to the presence of the female flower. On the flip side, in dioecious plants, the seed is produced by female plants only.
  11. Walnut, oak, hazel, squash, and corn are the examples of common monoecious plants while, Asparagus, Biloba trees, Papaya, Marijuana (Cannabis), willow, holly, Ginkgo and poplar are the examples of dioecious plants.
  12. Jellyfish, planarians, earthworms, and slugs are examples of monoecious animals. On the other side, Mammals, reptiles, insects, and birds are examples of dioecious animals.

Conclusion

The above discussion summarizes that monoecious and dioecious are the type of organisms on the basis of reproductive behavior. Monoecious organisms are the bisexual organisms with both male and female reproductive organs existing in the same individual. On the other hand, dioecious are unisexual organisms with male and female reproductive parts present on different individuals.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White

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