Lysogenic Phase vs. Lytic Phase: What's the Difference?

Key Difference

Lysogenic phase and lytic phase are related to the virus. The virus is an infective agent that usually consist of a nucleic acid and a protein coat, and have an ability to multiply when it is in a living organism or host. The virus can be seen under a light microscope. These phases are the phases of reproduction of the virus. Lysogenic phase is one of the cycles of reproduction in the virus. In this cycle, the viral nucleic acid incorporates into the host genome, which helps to multiply and reproduce easily; the viral genome is transmitted into the new daughter cells. In this way, viral genome increases in the host body and effect it. Viral DNA merges into the host cell DNA, but it does not destroy the host cell. Whereas,  in lytic cycle, viral genome enters the host cell and merges into the DNA of host cell, takes over the cell control and functions by destroying cell DNA and finally destroys the host cell also.

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Comparison Chart

Lysogenic Phase Lytic Phase
Cycle of Reproduction Lysogenic phase is usually the first cycle of reproduction of viruses. Lytic phase is the main cycle of reproduction of viruses.
Host Cell Death In lysogenic phase, the host cell death does not occur In lytic phase, the host cell is destroyed.
Viral Infection In lysogenic phase, the symptoms of viral infection are not seen. In lytic phase, virtual viral infection takes place.
Progeny In lysogenic phase, the virus does not produce any progeny. In lytic phase, virus produces progeny.
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 What is Lysogenic Phase?

Lysogenic phase or cycle is a cycle of viral reproduction. In this cycle, the viral nucleic acid incorporates into the host genome. The viral genome that gets into the host genome is known as a prophage. This helps it to multiply and reproduce easily; the viral genome is transmitted into the new daughter cells. In this way, viral genome increases in the host body and effect it. Viral DNA merges into the host cell DNA, but it does not destroy the host cell. In this phase, the virus does not produce any progeny, and there are no symptoms of viral infection inside the body of the host but they appear after the viral infection is over. In this type of reproduction, the viral genome (DNA or RNA) remains permanently in the cell.

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What is Lytic phase?

Lytic phase or cycle is the main cycle of viral reproduction. In this cycle, the viral genome enters the host cell, it there it transcribes itself into host cell mRNA. Now after translation and other processes, the viral genome takes over the host cell DNA and its functions. Viral genome multiplies itself and destroys the host cell DNA, and finally, the complete cell is dead (lysis). The virus uses the cellular energy of the host cell to perform its functions. The virus produces progeny, and they replicate at a very high rate. When the host cell is full of viruses, it bursts by some of the enzymes released by the virus to break the cell wall or membrane. Symptoms of viral infection are clearly seen in the body of the host.

Lysogenic Phase vs. Lytic Phase

  • Lysogenic phase is usually the first cycle of reproduction of viruses, but lytic phase is the main cycle of reproduction of viruses. Many viruses first reproduce via lysogenic phase but soon shift to lytic phase.
  • In lysogenic phase, the host cell death does not occur, while in lytic phase, the host cell is destroyed.
  • In lysogenic phase, the symptoms of viral infection are not seen whereas, in lytic phase, these symptoms can clearly be seen.
  • In lysogenic phase, the virus does not produce any progeny whereas, in lytic phase, virus produce progeny.
  • In lysogenic phase, temperate viral replication takes place whereas, in lytic phase, virtual viral infection takes place.
  • In lysogenic phase, the cellular machinery of the host cell is little affected whereas, in lytic phase, the cellular machinery of the host cell is completely taken over.

Explanatory Video

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