Difference Between Cytokinesis in Plant Cell and Cytokinesis in Animal Cell

Main Difference

The main difference between Cytokinesis in Plant Cell and Cytokinesis in Animal Cell is that Cytokinesis in Plant Cell involves the formation of the cell plate, whereas Cytokinesis in Animal Cell takes place through cleavage.

Cytokinesis in Plant Cell vs. Cytokinesis in Animal Cell

After the division of the nucleus by mitosis or meiosis, the next step is the division of cytoplasm. Division of nucleus is known as karyokinesis whereas, the division of cytoplasm is known as cytokinesis. The word ‘Cytokinesis’ was derived from a Greek word where cyto means ‘cell’ and ‘kinesis’ means movement or motion. The purpose of the cytokinesis is to divide the parent cell into daughter cells.

The process of cytokinesis is different in plant and animal cells because the plant cell has a cell wall that needs to be split whereas, there is no cell wall in an animal cell.

In plant cells, cytokinesis takes place by the formation of the cell plate. A large number of vesicles that are released from the Golgi apparatus align themselves in the center of the cell. These vesicles fuse together to form a plate-like structure in the center of the cell known as cell plate. These vesicles contain all the elements necessary for the formation of the cell wall and cell membrane.

On the other hand, there is no cell plate formation in animal cells as cytokinesis takes place through cleavage. A cleavage appears in the center of the cell and keeps on deepen until it reaches the ends and divides the parent cell into two daughter cells.

In plant cell cytokinesis starts during telophase with the formation of the cell plate. On the flip side, in animal cell constriction starts during late anaphase or early telophase. Cytoskeleton or microfilaments are not so active in the cytokinesis of plant cells whereas, they are very actively involved in the cytokinesis of animal cells.

Comparison Chart

Cytokinesis in Plant CellCytokinesis in Animal Cell
The process of division of cytoplasm in the plant cell is called cytokinesis in the plant cell.The process of division of cytoplasm in an animal cell is called cytokinesis in an animal cell.
Division of Cytoplasm
In this type of cytokinesis, cell plate formation takes place to divide cytoplasm into two daughter cells.Cytokinesis in the animal cell takes place through cleavage.
Spindles
The middle portion of the spindles remains active during cytokinesis in a plant cell to form a complex known as phragmoplast.During cytokinesis in an animal cell, spindles degenerate.
Row of Vesicles
A row of vesicles formed in the center of the cell during plant cell cytokinesis.There is no row of vesicles involved during animal cell cytokinesis.
Role of Microfilaments
Microfilaments play a little role in plant cell cytokinesis.In animal cell cytokinesis, microfilaments are very actively involved.
Starting Time
In plant cell cytokinesis starts during telophase with the formation of the cell plate.In animal cell constriction starts during late anaphase or early telophase.
Mid Body
A mid-body is absent in plant cell cytokinesis.A mid-body is present in animal cell cytokinesis.
Wall Formation
In plant cells cytokinesis, wall formation takes place in the region of cytokinesis.There is no wall formation in animal cell cytokinesis.
Direction of Division
In plant cell cytokinesis, the cell plate develops from the center of the cell towards the lateral walls. So, it is known as centrifugal.In animal cell cytokinesis, the furrow starts to deepen from the lateral sides of the cell towards the center. So it is known as centripetal.
Splitting of Cell Wall
Plant cell cytokinesis involves the splitting of the cell wall.There is no cell wall splitting in animal cell cytokinesis.

What is Cytokinesis in Plant Cell?

Cytokinesis in a plant cell or division of cytoplasm in a plant cell is different from an animal cell due to the presence of the cell wall. Plants have a rigid cell wall to provide a specific form to the cell. It must be established at the time of cell division. So, cytokinesis in plant cells cannot be proceeded through a simple cleavage process as in the animal cells. In plant cell cytokinesis starts during telophase with the formation of the cell plate. Here cytokinesis takes place by the formation of the cell plate. In this process, the cell plate develops from the center of the cell towards the lateral walls. So, it is known as centrifugal.

Stages of Cytokinesis in Plant cell

  • Formation of Phragmoplas: In this step, microtubules form an arrangement to support and guide the formation of the cell plate. They provide a framework for the movement and arrangement of vesicles.
  • Movement of Vesicles: During this step, a large number of vesicles arise from the Golgi apparatus with required material for the formation of the cell membrane and cell wall. According to research, these vesicles have carbohydrates, protein, lipids, and some endocytosed material as well. These vesicles arranged themselves around the division plane according to the framework of microtubules and got fused to each other to form a tubular-vesicular network.
  • Formation of Cell Plate: These membrane tubules became widen and keep on fusing with each other to form a cell plate in the center of the cell. Then it converts into membrane sheets due to the deposition of callose which is followed by the deposition of cellulose and other components of the cell wall.
  • Recycling of Material: In this step, excess material recycles from the cell plate.
  • Fusion: the Last step during cytokinesis in the plant cell is the fusion of a new cell wall with the parental wall which divides the cell into two equal daughter cells.

Deposition Of The Components Of Cell Wall

The construction of the cell wall starts within the young cell plate. With the help of immuno-electron microscopy, the order of deposition of different components of the cell wall can be determined. The compounds that reach first are hemicelluloses, pectins, and arabinogalactan proteins that are carried with the help of secretory vesicles that combine to make the cell plate. Callose is the next constituent that is added, and it is polymerized directly by the callose synthases at the cell plate. During the maturation of the cell plate and its fusion to the plasma membrane of the parent cell, the callose is slowly replaced by cellulose which is the main part of a mature cell wall. The middle lamella, which is glue-like pectin containing layer develops from the cell plate and plays its role to bind the cell walls of neighboring cells together.

What is Cytokinesis in Animal Cells?

Cytokinesis, or the division of cytoplasm in an animal cell, takes place through cleavage. There is no cell wall present in the animal cell but only the plasma membrane. So, cytokinesis in an animal cell does not involve the fusion of vesicles or cell plate. A cleavage furrow appears in the center of the cell and keeps on deepen until it reaches the ends and divides the parent cell into two daughter cells. In animal cell constriction starts during late anaphase or early telophase. In this type of cytokinesis, the furrow starts to deepen from the lateral sides of the cell towards the center. So it is known as centripetal.

Stages of Cytokinesis in Animal Cells

  • Formation of Division Plane: It is the first and foremost important step in the cytokinesis of animal cells. In this step, cytoskeleton or microtubules and cell signals are involved. In this step, microtubules determined the specific plane in which the division of the cell will take place. After the decision of the plane, the actin-myosin contractile rings become established in this reason. These are the same proteins that are responsible for the contraction of muscle Muscle cells have actin filaments that can be pulled together with the help of protein myosin in the presence of ATP energy. The same system is working in the division of animal cells. At the division plane, actin filaments form a ring. Then myosin proteins pull the actin filaments together to generate a smaller ring.
  • Formation of Midbody Structure: In this step, all the organelles and cytoplasm have been excluded from the ring. Only the actin-myosin ring and the microtubules left behind. This structure is known as the midbody structure. This structure should also be divided in order to separate the cells.
  • Abscission: It is the final step in the cytokinesis of animal cells. During this step, the midbody structure divided to separate the cells. This process cuts the proteins and the plasma membranes become fused shut. Then the extracellular material that is present between the cells becomes dissolved, and the cells may be separated. These cells may remain closely linked in some multicellular organisms and can even keep and form links between their cytoplasms that are known as gap junctions. These small connections may be the result of remnants of the endoplasmic reticulum that gets stuck in the midbody structure, or they may also be formed later.
  • After the end of cytokinesis, the non-kinetochore microtubules rearrange and disappear into the new cytoskeleton.

Key Differences

  1. The process of division of cytoplasm in the plant cell is called cytokinesis in plant cells whereas, the process of division of cytoplasm in an animal cell is called cytokinesis in an animal cell.
  2. In plant cell cytokinesis, cell plate formation takes place to divide cytoplasm into two daughter cells. On the other hand, cytokinesis in an animal cell takes place through cleavage.
  3. The middle portion of the spindles remains active during cytokinesis in a plant cell to form a complex known as phragmoplast. Conversely, during cytokinesis in an animal cell, spindles degenerate.
  4. A row of vesicles formed in the center of the cell during plant cell cytokinesis on the flip side, there is no row of vesicles involved during animal cell cytokinesis.
  5. Microfilaments play a little role in plant cell cytokinesis on the other side, in animal cell cytokinesis, microfilaments are very actively involved.
  6. In plant cell cytokinesis starts during telophase with the formation of the cell plate while in animal cell constriction starts during late anaphase or early telophase.
  7. A mid-body is not present in plant cell cytokinesis. On the other hand, a mid-body is present in animal cell cytokinesis.
  8. In plant cell cytokinesis, wall formation takes place in the region of cytokinesis, whereas, there is no wall formation in animal cell cytokinesis.
  9. In plant cell cytokinesis, the cell plate develops from the center of the cell towards the lateral walls. So, it is known as centrifugal. On the flip side, in animal cell cytokinesis, the furrow starts to deepen from the lateral sides of the cell towards the center. So it is known as centripetal.
  10. Plant cell cytokinesis involves the splitting of the cell wall. On the other hand, there is no cell wall splitting in animal cell cytokinesis.

Comparison Video

YouTube video

Conclusion

The above discussion summarizes that cytokinesis in the plant cell is different than animal cells due to the presence of the cell wall in a plant cell. In plant cell cytokinesis takes place through the formation of a cell plate with the help of vesicles released from the Golgi apparatus. On the other side, cytokinesis in an animal cell takes place by the formation of the contractile ring in the center of the cell.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White

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