Difference Between Covalent Bonds and Ionic Bonds


Main Difference

The main difference between ionic bonds and covalent bonds is sharing of electron pairs and atoms. In covalent bonds, atoms are electrostatically attracted within the course of each other whereas in ionic bonds; electron pairs are shared between atoms.

Comparison Chart

Covalent BondsIonic Bonds
A covalent bond is a kind of chemical bond that features sharing of shared pairs or bonding pairs (electron pairs) between atoms.An Ionic bond is the form of chemical bond that features the sharing or entire hand over of various electrons by one atom to a distinct atom.
Covalent bonds are the outcomes of interaction of neutral atomsIonic bonds are the outcomes of the interaction between anions and cations.
Chemical Potential
These are pretty weak chemical bondsThese are the strongest kind of chemical bond.
Non-metallic elements kind covalent bondsMetallic elements kind ionic bonds
Electrons Status
Shared electronsTotal change of electrons
The State of Matter
Liquids and gasses at room temperatureSolids at room temperature
Insoluble in waterSoluble in water
Definite typeNo specific type
Greek prefixesRoman numerals
Hydro Chloric Acid and MethaneSulphuric Acid and Sodium Chloride

Covalent Bonds

Covalent bonds, moreover acknowledged by the determine of molecular bonds, are the form of chemical bonds that features sharing of shared pairs or bonding pairs (electron pairs) between atoms. In most of the molecules, the electrons sharing allow each atom to get the equal of a full outer shell, akin to a gradual digital configuration. If atoms have comparable affinity for electrons, covalent bonds are susceptible to occur because of the an identical affinity for electrons and no tendency to donate them by atoms. Atoms share electrons to get octet configuration and grow to be further regular and stronger. Because of interactions of the sigma and pi orbitals, covalent bonds can kind four kind of bonds particularly single, double, triple and quadruple. Oxygen atoms are top-of-the-line occasion that requires two further electrons to kind a closed shell whereas hydrogen atoms need one to kind a closed shell. An oxygen atom shares two of its electrons with hydrogen atoms, so the atoms of every have closed shells. This in the long run creates a water molecule.


Ionic Bonds

An Ionic bond is the form of chemical bond that features the sharing or entire hand over of various electrons by one atom to a distinct atom. Ionic bonds are the outcomes of those elements that readily lose electrons and these elements that obtain electrons. These types of bonds do not for, molecules the least bit because of the interaction between charges as described Coulomb’s Law. Ionic bonds keep sturdy at room temperature because of, all through periodic lattices with billions of ions kind, each ion is surrounded by many ions of reverse price. The electrostatic factors of curiosity between the adversarial and constructive ions preserve the compound collectively. The normal vitality all through ionic bonding course of is commonly constructive indicating that the response is endothermic and unfavorable. On the alternative hand, this response is favorable on the an identical time because of their electrostatic attraction. A typical occasion of an ionic bond is sodium or salt. Sodium atoms shortly give electrons that result in a constructive price. Chlorine accepts these electrons and negatively charged. These two oppositely charged atoms are then attracting one another to kind a sodium chloride molecule.

Key Differences

  1. In covalent bonds, electron orbitals are overlapping whereas these are separate in case of ionic bonds.
  2. Covalent bonds are comparatively easy as as compared with ionic bonds which could be arduous and brittle.
  3. Both metallic atoms and non-metal atoms are involved inside the formation of ionic bonds whereas in covalent bonds’ formation; solely non-metals atoms are involved.
  4. Covalent bonds are formed because of sharing electrons whereas ionic bonds formation occurs because of transferring of electrons.
  5. Molecules are the particles in covalent bonds all through compound formation whereas in ionic bonds these are positively charged and negatively charged ions.
  6. Covalent bonds are non-conductors whereas ionic bonds are conductors.
  7. Covalent bonding happens between atoms of little completely totally different in electronegativity. Ionic bonding happens between atoms of good in electronegativity.
  8. Ionic bonds require extreme melting and a boiling degree in case of ionic bonding. Covalent bonds require low melting and boiling degree in case of covalent bonding.
  9. Methane and Hydro Chloric Acid are widespread examples of a covalent Sodium Chloride and Sulphuric Acid are examples of ionic bonds.
  10. Covalent bonds have a selected type whereas ionic bonds don’t have any specific
  11. Covalent bonds have low polarity whereas ionic bonds have extreme polarity.
  12. 100% covalent molecules will dissolve in oil, nonetheless not in water whereas many ionic bonds have the aptitude to dissolve in water nonetheless not in oil.
  13. Covalent bonds are important because of carbon molecules work collectively primarily by the use of covalent bonding whereas ionic bonds are important because of these allow the synthesis of specific pure compounds.
  14. Covalent bonds might be every elements and compounds whereas ionic bonds might be compounds solely.
Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White