Difference Between Standardization and Titration

Main Difference

The main difference between standardization and titration is that standardization is the process which essentially uses primary standard solutions, whereas titration is the process which does not essentially use the primary standard solutions.

Standardization vs. Titration

Standardization is a procedure used to find the exact concentration of a solution, whereas titration is the method used to measure the concentration of a certain chemical component in a given solution. A solution which is ready for another analysis, standardization is used to find the exact concentration of that solution, while titration is used to find unknown concentration of a chemical component in a given sample. The burette is occupied with a primary standard solution for standardization; on the other hand, the burette is filled with either primary standard solution or with any other standard solution for titration. The solution which has to be standardized is taken into the titration flask for the standardization process; on the contrary, the solution which has the chemical component with an unknown concentration is taken for titration method.

Comparison Chart

StandardizationTitration
A procedure used to find the exact concentration of a solution is known as standardization.The method used to measure the concentration of a certain unknown chemical component in a given solution is known as titration.
Application
A solution which is set for another analysis, standardization is used to find the exact concentration of that solutionUsed to find unknown concentration of a chemical component in a given sample
Solution in Burette
The burette is occupied with a primary standard solution for standardizationThe burette is filled with either primary standard solution or with any other standard solution for titration
The Solution in Titration Flask
The solution which has to be standardized is taken into the titration flask for the standardization processThe solution which has the chemical component with an unknown concentration is taken for titration method.

What is Standardization?

Standardization is the process of increasing and implementing technical standards and discover the exact concentration of a solution. Titration is also the most commonly used technique for the standardization of a solution. A normal solution is required as a reference for a standardization process. The two types of standard solution are the primary standard solution and secondary standard solution. We use primary standard solutions for accurate standardizations because these solutions comprise of high purity. Using a solid chemical compound, when we make a solution, the final concentration of that solution may vary depending on several factors such as instrumental errors, purity of the compound, human errors, etc. Standards measures and weights were developed by the Indus valley civilization. The federal measure and weight system served the profitable interest of Indus merchants such as smaller weight measures were used to measure luxury goods, whereas larger weight measures were employed for buying bulkier items, for instance, food grains, etc.

For instance, if we want to prepare a 1.0molL-1 solution of EDTA, we weigh the appropriate amount of solution and dissolve it in a suitable amount of water. The required weight of solution can be calculated by using the data given on the bottle label. But it may not give the exact concentration. Consequently, after the preparation of the solution, it should be standardized to find the exact concentration of the prepared solution by using a primary standard solution.

What is Titration?

Titration is a common test site process of quantitative chemical analysis to control the concentration of an identified analyte. A reagent called titrator or titrant is prepared as a standard solution of known volume and concentration. Titration is the method used to measure the concentration of a certain chemical component in a given solution. This method is done by using a solution which has a known concentration. Titration is done in the specific apparatus. The apparatus consists of a burette which is generally filled with a known concentration of a standard solution. The titration flask is filled with an unknown concentration sample that has the chemical component. We should add an appropriate indicator to the sample in titration flask if the standardized solution cannot act as self-indicator in the burette. After that, the standardized solution is slowly added to the flask until a color change is observed in the solution. This color change in the burette indicates the endpoint of the solution. Though it is not the exact point at which titration ends but we can take it as the equivalence point because there is present only a slight difference. Afterward, the burette reading can be used to find the amount of standard solution that reacted with the present sample. Then by using the stoichiometric relationships and chemical reactions, the concentration of an unknown can be determined.

Key Differences

  1. Standardization used to find the exact concentration of a solution, whereas titration used to measure the concentration of an unknown component in a given solution.
  2. A solution which is set for another analysis, standardization is used to find the exact concentration of that solution, while titration is used to find unknown concentration of a chemical component in a given sample.
  3. In standardization, the burette is filled with a primary standard solution; on the other hand, in titration, the burette is filled with either primary standard solution or with any other standard solution.
  4. The solution which has to be standardized is taken into the titration flask for the standardization process; on the contrary, the solution which has the chemical component with an unknown concentration is taken for titration method.
Harlon Moss

Harlon currently works as a quality moderator and content writer for Difference Wiki. He graduated from the University of California in 2010 with a degree in Computer Science. Follow him on Twitter @HarlonMoss

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