Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides

Main Difference

The main difference between Monosaccharides, and Polysaccharides is that the Monosaccharides are usually the sugars monomers, whereas Polysaccharides are made up of an enormous number of monomers.

Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides — Is There a Difference?
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Difference Between Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides are usually water-soluble molecules, whereas polysaccharides are generally insoluble in water.

Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides are sweet; on the contrary, polysaccharides are not sweet.

Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides are known as reducing sugars, while polysaccharides ae always acts as non-reducing sugars.

Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides contain a single monomer; on the flip side, polysaccharides contain a large number of monomers.

Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides

The chemical structure of monosaccharides consists of linear, unbranched, or simple structure; conversely, polysaccharides contain the chemical structure as branched or complex structures.

Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides

The chemical rings are a single ring structure in monosaccharides; on the contrary, several ring structures are present in polysaccharides.

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Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides

The general formula of monosaccharides is (CH2O) n, where n could be 3, 5 or 6; on the other hand, the general formula for polysaccharides is (CH2O) y, where n could be more than between 200-2500.

Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides consist of energy with four calories for each gram; on the contrary, polysaccharides act as an energy reservoir and refer as the structural constituent in cell walls of plants.

Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides

The molecular weight of monosaccharides is relatively low as compared to other sugar molecules; on the flip side, polysaccharides contain comparatively larger molecular weight as compare to all other molecules.

Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides

Foods as an example in monosaccharides include honey, fruits, dairy products, beans, etc., whereas food in polysaccharides are oats, buckwheat, brown rice, etc.

Comparison Chart

MonosaccharidesPolysaccharides
Monosaccharides are referred to as the simplest form of sugars and the most basic component of a carbohydrate molecule.Polysaccharides are known as polymeric carbohydrates formed of extensive series of monosaccharides units that are bonded with each other by glycosidic bonds.
Considered As
They are considered as only sugar molecule that performs as building blocks.They are considered as carbohydrate molecules composed of several molecules of monosaccharides.
Water Solubility
Usually water-soluble moleculesInsoluble in water
Taste
Sweet in tasteDo not taste sweet
Reducing Strength
Known as reducing sugarsAlways acts as non-reducing sugars
Number of Monomers
Contain a single monomerContain a large number of monomers
Chemical Structure
Consists of a linear, unbranched, or simple structureContains the chemical structure as branched or complex structures
Chemical Rings
A single ring structureConsist of several ring structures
General Formula
(CH2O) n, where n could be 3, 5 or 6(CH2O) y, where n could be more than 200-250
Significance
The main energy source having energy with four calories per gramRefer to the structural constituent in cell walls of plants that act as an energy reservoir
Molecular Weight
Low molecular weightLarger molecular weight
Foods as Examples
Honey, fruits, dairy products, beans, etcOats, buckwheat, brown rice, etc
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Monosaccharides vs. Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides are considered as only sugar molecule that performs as building blocks, whereas polysaccharides are considered as carbohydrate molecules composed of several molecules of monosaccharides linked with glycosidic bonds. Monosaccharides are usually water-soluble molecules, while polysaccharides are generally insoluble in water. Monosaccharides are sweet; on the other hand, polysaccharides are not sweet.

Monosaccharides are known as reducing sugars, while polysaccharides always act as non-reducing sugars. Monosaccharides contain a single monomer; on the flip side, polysaccharides contain a large number of monomers. The chemical structure of monosaccharides consists of linear, unbranched, or simple structure; conversely, polysaccharides contain the chemical structure as branched or complex structures.

The chemical rings in monosaccharides are a single ring structure; on the contrary, polysaccharides consist of several ring structures. The general formula of monosaccharides is (CH2O) n, where n could be 3, 5 or 6; on the other hand, the general formula for polysaccharides is (CH2O) y, where n could be more than 200-250. Monosaccharides are the main energy source having energy with four calories per gram; on the contrary, polysaccharides refer to the structural constituent in cell walls of plants that act as an energy reservoir.

Monosaccharides contain a comparatively low molecular weight as compare to other sugar molecules; on the flip side, on the other hand, polysaccharides contain comparatively larger molecular weight as compare to all other molecules. Monosaccharides consist of food as an example include honey, fruits, dairy products, beans, etc., whereas in polysaccharides are oats, buckwheat, brown rice, etc.

What are Monosaccharides?

Monosaccharides consider as molecules of single sugar that perform as the basic elements for polysaccharides and disaccharides. They are the most naive arrangement of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are made up of C, H, and O atoms in their molecules.

(CH2O) n is the general or common formula of monosaccharides where n relates to units could be 3, 5, or 6. These are mostly originating in ketone form or aldehyde from their carbonyl structure, and monosaccharides particularly contain a carbonyl group. Monosaccharides having aldehyde group are usually called as aldoses and monosaccharides containing ketone groups are called as ketoses.

Almost all monosaccharides are soluble in water and have a sweet taste and become colorless or faded when soluble in water. The chemical structure of monosaccharides consists of linear, unbranched, or simple structures. Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, glyceraldehyde, pentose, and Erythrose.

What are Polysaccharides?

A polysaccharide is considered a carbohydrate that is composed of several monosaccharides through glycosidic bonds. They are an extensive series of monosaccharide molecules. Hence, all the polysaccharides are formed of several chemical rings.

The composition of polysaccharides happens by polymerization condensation because a molecule of water is produced by every glycosidic bond. Many polysaccharides are usually insoluble in water and do not contain a sweet taste. Because of the complex structure of polysaccharides, they all act as non-reducing agents.

Polysaccharides contain the chemical structure as branched or complex structures. Some of the polysaccharides’ examples are starch and cellulose.

Classification

  • Homo-Polysaccharides: Composed of only one type of monosaccharides
  • Hetero-Polysaccharides: Composed of two or more types of monosaccharides
Conclusion

Above discussion concludes that the monosaccharide, and polysaccharides are major constituents in nature where monosaccharides are usually the monomers of sugars, while polysaccharides made up of a large number of monomers.