As we know that plants are mainly divided into two types, namely flowering plants and non-flowering plants (angiosperms or gymnosperms). It should be kept mentioned that around 80% of all the existing green plants are flowering plants. These flowering plants are further divided into monocots and dicots. The monocot is the plant that has only one cotyledon in the embryo, whereas dicot is the plant that has two cotyledons in the embryo. Monocot and dicot plants differ from each other in four structures: leaves, stems, roots and seeds. In monocot roots, the pericycle present only produces the lateral roots, whereas, in dicot roots, the pericycle gives rise to lateral roots, cork cambium, and the part of the vascular cambium. In monocots stem, the vascular bundles are scattered across the stem without any definite arrangement. On the other hand, in dicots stem, the vascular bundles are arranged in the form of one or two broken rings, following that they have a definite shape. Monocot leaves mostly have parallel veins whereas; dicot leaves have net-veins.
What are Monocotyledon Plants?
Monocotyledon Plants are the flowering plants, which has only one cotyledon in the embryo of the plant. There are many factors and structure, which makes monocots distinguishable from the dicots.
Monocot Root: The number of xylem and phloem are numerous in this case. The Xylem vessels present are of round or oval-shaped. The pericycle present only produces the lateral roots. The Pith is present in the Xylem, and it is quite large and well developed.
Monocot Stem: The monocot stem also has the single layered epidermis along with the thick cuticle, although the epidermal hairs are absent in the case. Due to the presence of the lateral branches, circular stems are absent in monocots.
Monocot Leaf: Monocot leaf has a double epidermal layer, one on the upper surface and other on the lower surface. The thick cuticle is present on the outer surface whereas lower surface has thin cuticle. The cells of the epidermis are filled with many chloroplasts. Bulliform cells are present on upper epidermis. The epidermis of monocots also possesses many intercellular spaces in them. Mesophyll is present in the spongy parenchyma. Monocot leaf has an equal number of stomata on either side. Monocot leaves possess parallel veins in them.
What are Dicotyledon Plants?
Dicotyledon Plants are the flowering plants, which have two cotyledons in the embryo of the plant.
Dicot Root: The Xylem they possess is in the ‘X’ shape, and it I surrounded by the phloem. At the very same time, the number of Xylem and Phloem remains very much same in the dicot roots as the phloem bounds each of the xylems in it. Their vascular bundles are arranged in the form of one or two broken rings.
Dicot Stem: The dicot stem has single layered epidermis along with the thick cuticle. Mainly the difference in arrangement of the vascular bundles make the difference between them and the monocot stem. As the dicots are more complex as compared to the monocots, they may or may not have the epidermal hairs, which are essential for the insulation, warmth, and absorption in plants. Their vascular bundles are arranged in the form of one or two broken rings.
Dicot Leaf: Dicot leaf also has a double epidermal layer, one on the upper surface and other on the lower surface. The cuticle is present uniformly on the outer and inner surface. Bulliform cells are usually absent. Mesophyll is made up of two kinds of tissues, one spongy parenchyma, and the other one is palisade parenchyma. Dicot leaves have large intercellular spaces in them. Dicots leaf have more stomata on their lower surface. Dicots leaves have net-veins in them.
Monocotyledon Plants vs. Dicotyledon Plants
- Monocotyledon Plants are the flowering plants, which has only one cotyledon in the embryo of the plant. On the other hand, Dicotyledon Plants are the flowering plants, which have two cotyledons in the embryo of the plant.
- In monocot roots, the xylem and phloem are numerous in numbers. On the other hand, in dicot roots, the xylem and phloem are limited in numbers.
- The Pith is absent in the dicot root, whereas in monocot root it is large and well developed.
- In dicot stem, bundle sheath is not present, while in monocot stem the bundle sheath is present as it surrounds the scattered vascular bundles.
- Monocots leaves have an equal number of stomata on each surface while dicot leaves have more stomata on their lower surface.
- Monocot leaves have bulliform cells on upper epidermis, whereas in dicot leaves bulliform is absent.