Chemistry

Difference Between Ideal Solution and Non Ideal Solution

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Main Difference

The main difference between the ideal solution and the non-ideal solution is that the ideal solution contains the same intermolecular connections between all the molecules, whereas non-ideal solution contains different molecular connections between the molecules of solute and solvent.

Ideal Solution vs. Non Ideal Solution

The same connection is present between all the component molecules in an ideal solution, while solute-solute, solvent-solute, and solvent-solvent relations are present in non-ideal solutions.

Ideal solutions generally always obey Raoult’s law at each variety of absorptions; on the contrary, non-ideal solutions usually do not obey Raoult’s law. When the solution is dissolved in an ideal solution, the heat is neither absorbed nor evolved; on the flip side, heat is absorbed or evolved in non-ideal solutions.

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Various examples of the ideal solution are bromoethane and chloroethane, benzene and toluene, n-hexane and n-heptane, chlorobenzene and bromobenzene, CCl4 and SiCl4, n-butyl chloride and n-butyl bromide, ethyl bromide and ethyl iodide. Some examples of non-ideal solutions are methyl alcohol and water, acetone and ethanol, acetone and carbon disulfide, chloroform and benzene, nitric acid and water, hydrochloric acid and water.

Comparison Chart

Ideal SolutionNon Ideal Solution
A solution where contact between all the molecules of all the solutions is the same is an ideal solution.A solution that has a difference in the interrelation between all the molecules of different components is a non-ideal solution.
Types of Interactions
The same connection is present between all the component molecules.Solute-solute, solvent-solute, and solvent-solvent relations are present.
Enthalpy
The procedure is zero or almost zero, then change in enthalpy occurs.The procedure is positive or negative, then change in enthalpy occurs.
Real Solutions
Highly dilute solutionsHighly concentrated solutions
Obey Raoult’s Law
Follow Raoult’s lawDo not follow Raoult’s law.
Heat Exchange
The heat is neither absorbed nor evolvedHeat is absorbed or evolved
Examples
Bromoethane and chloroethane, benzene and toluene, n-hexane and n-heptane, chlorobenzene and bromobenzene, CCl4 and SiCl4, n-butyl chloride and n-butyl bromide, ethyl bromide and ethyl iodideMethyl alcohol and water, acetone and ethanol, acetone and carbon disulfide, chloroform and benzene, nitric acid and water, hydrochloric acid and water
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What is the Ideal Solution?

Ideal solutions generally always obey Raoult’s law at each variety of absorptions and all temperatures and each concentration. The ideal solution is the solution in which contact between all the molecules of all the solutions is the same is an ideal solution. The ideal solution can be obtained by mixing two ideal solutions, which are solvent and solute present at the comparable structure and molecular size.

In an ideal solution, no net force is usually present between the molecular components of the solutions. So, the relative distance that is present between solute molecules does not change even after the mixing of the solvent. Because to change the distance between the molecules of the solution, there must be present a net force acting on the molecules.

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When an ideal solution procedure is zero or almost zero, then change in enthalpy occurs, which means the enthalpy change is zero. When the solution is dissolved in an ideal solution, the heat is neither absorbed nor evolved. It is considered that ideal solutions exist in actuality; for instance, the interrelation between benzene-toluene, benzene-benzene, and toluene-toluene are approximately the same.

Examples

Various examples of the ideal solution are bromoethane and chloroethane, benzene and toluene, n-hexane and n-heptane, chlorobenzene and bromobenzene.

What is Non Ideal Solution?

Non-ideal solutions usually do not obey Raoult’s law at each variety of absorptions and all temperatures and each concentration. The non-ideal solutions are called non-ideal because they diverge from the ideal solutions.

It is a solution that has a difference in the interrelation between all the molecules of different components. Solute-solute, solvent-solute, and solvent-solvent relations are present in non-ideal solutions. The solutions which are chemically highly concentrated can perform as non-ideal solutions because concentrated solutions generally show non-ideal behavior of solutions.

When a non-ideal solution procedure is positive or negative, then change in enthalpy occurs. Heat is absorbed or evolved in non-ideal solutions. Two types of non-ideal solutions are found as Positive deviation from Raoult’s law, and Negative deviation from Raoult’s law.

Examples

Some examples of the non-ideal solution are methyl alcohol and water, acetone and ethanol, acetone and carbon disulfide, chloroform and benzene, nitric acid, and water.

Key Differences

  1. In an ideal solution, the equal association between all the molecules is present, while in non-ideal solutions, the relation between solute-solute, solvent-solute, and solvent-solvent are present.
  2. The change in enthalpy happens when an ideal solution process is zero or nearly zero, whereas the change in enthalpy happens when a non-ideal solution method is positive or negative.
  3. The highly dilute solutions could carry out as ideal solutions; on the other hand, the highly concentrated solutions could act as non-ideal solutions.
  4. Ideal solutions normally continually follow Raoult’s law; on the contrary, non-ideal solutions generally do not follow Raoult’s law.
  5. The heat is neither absorbed nor evolved in an ideal solution; on the flip side, heat is absorbed or evolved in non-ideal solutions.
  6. Bromoethane and chloroethane, benzene and toluene, n-hexane and n-heptane, chlorobenzene and bromobenzene, CCl4 and SiCl4, ethyl bromide and ethyl iodide are various examples of the ideal solution; on the other hand, methyl alcohol and water, acetone and ethanol, acetone and carbon disulfide, chloroform and benzene, nitric acid and water, hydrochloric acid and water are some examples of non-ideal solution.

Conclusion

The above discussion concludes that the ideal solution generally always obeys Raoult’s law and contains the same intermolecular connections between all the molecules, whereas non-ideal solution usually does not obey Raoult’s law and contains different molecular connections between the molecules of solute and solvent.

Harlon Moss

Harlon currently works as a quality moderator and content writer for Difference Wiki. He graduated from the University of California in 2010 with a degree in Computer Science. Follow him on Twitter @HarlonMoss

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