Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination

Main Difference

The main difference between Epigeal Germination and Hypogeal Germination is that Epigeal Germination is a botanical term representing that the germination of a plant takes place above the ground whereas Hypogeal Germination is a botanical term representing that the germination of a plant takes place below the ground.

Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination — Is There a Difference?
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Difference Between Epigeal Germination and Hypogeal Germination

Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination

Epigeal germination denotes to the germination of a plant that takes place above the ground while hypogeal germination indicates to the germination of a plant that takes place below the ground.

Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination

In epigeal germination, the cotyledons appear out of the soil whereas, in hypogeal germination, the cotyledons stay inside the soil.

Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination

The hypocotyl is long in plants that indicate epigeal-germination oppositely the hypocotyl is short in plants that state hypogeal germination.

Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination

The upper part of the hypocotyl is curving down to keep the plumule in epigeal germination on the other hand hypocotyl in hypogeal germination does not show this curvature.

Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination

The hypocotyl is elongating in epigeal germination conversely epicotyl is prolonging in hypogeal germination.

Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination

Epicotyl is small in plants that show epigeal germination while the epicotyl is lengthy in plants that show hypogeal germination.

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Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination

The terminal of hypocotyl is curving to defend the cotyledon in epigeal germination, but the terminal of the epicotyl is bent to secure the plumule from hypogeal germination.

Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination

The cotyledons in epigeal germination changing green and experience photosynthesis whereas the cotyledons in hypogeal germination do not experience photosynthesis.

Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination

In epigeal germination, the energy originates from the cotyledons, while, in hypogeal germination, the energy derives from the endosperm.

Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination

Epigeal germination occurs in castor and beans oppositely the hypogeal germination occurs in pea, coconut, and maize.

Comparison Chart

Epigeal GerminationHypogeal Germination
Discusses the germination of a plant that takes place above the groundDiscusses the germination of a plant that takes place below the ground
Cotyledon
The cotyledons emerge out of the soilThe cotyledons remain inside the soil
Photosynthetic Cotyledons
Cotyledons are turning green and undergo photosynthesisThe cotyledons do not undergo photosynthesis
Length of the Epicotyl
Short in plantsEpicotyl is long in plants
Energy for the Embryo Development
The energy comes from the cotyledonsEnergy comes from the endosperm
Structure
Hypocotyl is elongatingEpicotyl is elongating
Curling
Curve to protect the cotyledonCurve to protect the plumule
Occurrence
Occurs in beans and castorCoconut, pea, and maize
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Epigeal Germination vs. Hypogeal Germination

In epigeal germination, the cotyledons appear out of the soil during germination whereas, in hypogeal germination, the cotyledons stay inside the soil. Hypocotyl shows a more elongation in epigeal germination whereas the hypocotyl is short in hypogeal germination. The hypocotyl is lengthy in plants that show epigeal-germination while the hypocotyl is small in plants that show hypogeal germination. The upper part of the hypocotyl is curving down to keep the plumule in epigeal germination while hypocotyl in hypogeal germination does not show this curvature. The hypocotyl is elongating in epigeal germination whereas Epicotyl is extending in hypogeal germination. Epicotyl is short in plants that display epigeal germination while the epicotyl is long in plants that show hypogeal germination. The terminal of hypocotyl is curving to guard the cotyledon in epigeal germination whereas the terminal of the epicotyl is curving to protect the plumule from hypogeal germination. The cotyledons in epigeal germination turning green and undergo photosynthesis while the cotyledons in hypogeal germination do not experience photosynthesis. In epigeal germination, the energy originates from the cotyledons, while, in hypogeal germination, the energy originates from the endosperm. Epigeal germination occurs in beans and castor whereas the hypogeal germination occurs in pea, coconut, and maize.

What is Epigeal Germination?

Epigeal germination is the kind of germination in which the seed leaves and cotyledons increase out of the soil owing to the elongation of the hypocotyl along with the development of the shoot. The hypocotyl is the fragment of the stem of an embryo plant beneath the stalks of the cotyledons. During the epigeal germination, the hypocotyl raises quickly and actively and becomes curve or curl in appearance. After emerging out of the soil, change in the hypocotyl flattens which allows the seed leaves or the cotyledons to come on which become photosynthetic as well. This effect in the seed coat to fall off, the cotyledons seem to green. The second leaves derive from the plumule become true leaves. The epicotyl ultimately matures and give rise to complete green leaves, and the cotyledons fall off. The main features of epigeal germination are; the radicle develops first to form the hypocotyls, but the plumule develops late. The hypocotyl primarily forms a loop and then extends. The cotyledons are carrying to the surface and thereby produce the primary leaves follow by shoot development.

Examples

Epigeal germination occurs in cotton, onion, castor, papaya, etc. In addition to food storage, cotyledons experience photosynthesis and produce food for the development of the embryo.

What is Hypogeal Germination?

Hypogeal germination is the type of germination in which the cotyledons persist below the soil surface, and this is due to the fast development and elongation of the epicotyl. Therefore, its hypocotyl is short. The epicotyl primarily develops, and then it extends, follows by curling up and attaining a curve structure and results in the cotyledons to stay below the soil surface. The epicotyl, which is the area of an embryo plant above the cotyledon, grows elongating while pushing the plumule out of the soil. The main features of hypogeal germination are; It is the type of an in situation seed germination where the cotyledons stay in the soil. The radicle grows to form the root system. The plumule progresses into the shoot system.

Examples

All monocotyledons such as rice, wheat, maize, and coconut show hypogeal germination. Also some dicotyledons such as groundnut, gram and pea show hypogeal germination.

Conclusion

Above this discussion, it concludes that there are two main methods in which seed germination takes place , epigeal germination and hypogeal germination. In epigeal germination, the cotyledons are carrying above the soil surface whereas in hypogeal germination the cotyledons stay in the soil.