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DNA Polymerase I vs. DNA Polymerase III: What's the Difference?

Edited by Huma Saeed || By Sawaira Riaz || Published on February 10, 2024
DNA polymerase I is mainly involved in DNA repair and primer removal, while DNA polymerase III is the primary enzyme for DNA replication in bacteria.

Key Differences

DNA polymerase I, discovered by Arthur Kornberg, is primarily involved in DNA repair mechanisms in bacteria. In contrast, DNA polymerase III, also identified by Kornberg, serves as the chief enzyme for bacterial DNA replication, playing a critical role in copying the bacterial genome during cell division.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024
The function of DNA polymerase I is to remove RNA primers used during DNA replication and replace them with DNA. DNA polymerase III, on the other hand, is responsible for the bulk of DNA synthesis during replication, adding nucleotides to the growing DNA strand.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024
DNA polymerase I possesses exonuclease activity, enabling it to remove nucleotides and correct errors. DNA polymerase III, distinguished by its high processivity and speed, lacks this proofreading ability but is assisted by other enzymes for error correction.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024
In terms of structure, DNA polymerase I is a single polypeptide, making it simpler than DNA polymerase III, which is a complex holoenzyme composed of multiple subunits, each contributing to its replication function.
Janet White
Feb 10, 2024
DNA polymerase I operates on a smaller scale, dealing with short stretches of DNA. Conversely, DNA polymerase III is designed for long, continuous DNA synthesis, making it essential for efficiently copying large bacterial genomes.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024
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Comparison Chart

Primary Function

DNA repair and primer removal
Main enzyme for DNA replication
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

Discovery

By Arthur Kornberg
Also discovered by Arthur Kornberg
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

Activity

Removal of RNA primers, DNA synthesis
Continuous, rapid DNA synthesis
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

Exonuclease Activity

Yes, for error correction
Lacks inherent proofreading ability
Aimie Carlson
Feb 10, 2024

Structural Complexity

Single polypeptide
Complex holoenzyme with multiple subunits
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024
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DNA Polymerase I and DNA Polymerase III Definitions

DNA Polymerase I

Essential for post-replication modifications in bacteria.
DNA polymerase I plays a vital role in modifying bacterial DNA post-replication.
Sawaira Riaz
Jan 25, 2024

DNA Polymerase III

Lacks inherent proofreading ability, relying on other enzymes.
While DNA polymerase III rapidly synthesizes DNA, other enzymes handle error correction.
Sawaira Riaz
Jan 25, 2024

DNA Polymerase I

Discovered by Arthur Kornberg, highlighting its historical significance.
The discovery of DNA polymerase I by Kornberg was a milestone in molecular biology.
Harlon Moss
Jan 25, 2024

DNA Polymerase III

A complex holoenzyme with multiple subunits.
The structural complexity of DNA polymerase III, with its multiple subunits, aids in effective replication.
Janet White
Jan 25, 2024

DNA Polymerase I

A bacterial enzyme involved in DNA repair and RNA primer removal.
DNA polymerase I meticulously replaces RNA primers with DNA during replication.
Sawaira Riaz
Jan 25, 2024

DNA Polymerase III

Characterized by high processivity and rapid DNA synthesis.
The high processivity of DNA polymerase III enables efficient bacterial genome replication.
Sawaira Riaz
Jan 25, 2024

DNA Polymerase I

DNA polymerase I has 5'→3' exonuclease activity for error correction.
The exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase I ensures the accuracy of DNA repair.
Sawaira Riaz
Jan 25, 2024

DNA Polymerase III

Also discovered by Arthur Kornberg, emphasizing its discovery's importance.
Kornberg's discovery of DNA polymerase III was pivotal in understanding bacterial replication.
Harlon Moss
Jan 25, 2024

DNA Polymerase I

It is less complex than DNA polymerase III, comprising a single polypeptide.
DNA polymerase I's simpler structure contrasts with the complexity of DNA polymerase III.
Sawaira Riaz
Jan 25, 2024

DNA Polymerase III

The primary enzyme responsible for bacterial DNA replication.
DNA polymerase III is crucial for duplicating the bacterial genome during cell division.
Sawaira Riaz
Jan 25, 2024

FAQs

What is DNA polymerase I?

It's an enzyme in bacteria involved in DNA repair and RNA primer removal.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

What is the primary role of DNA polymerase III?

It's the main enzyme for bacterial DNA replication.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

Does DNA polymerase I have proofreading ability?

Yes, it has 5'→3' exonuclease activity for error correction.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

Is DNA polymerase III responsible for primer removal?

No, that's the function of DNA polymerase I.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

What is the structural complexity of DNA polymerase I?

It is a single polypeptide, less complex than DNA polymerase III.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

Does DNA polymerase I play a role in replication?

Yes, but mainly in primer removal and repair, not bulk synthesis.
Harlon Moss
Feb 10, 2024

How does DNA polymerase III's lack of proofreading affect replication?

It relies on other enzymes for error correction.
Aimie Carlson
Feb 10, 2024

Who discovered DNA polymerase I?

Arthur Kornberg discovered it.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

How does DNA polymerase III function in replication?

It adds nucleotides to the growing DNA strand with high processivity.
Janet White
Feb 10, 2024

Can DNA polymerase I synthesize DNA?

Yes, it can, primarily when replacing RNA primers.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

How are these enzymes important in molecular biology?

They are key in understanding DNA replication and repair mechanisms.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

Is DNA polymerase III a holoenzyme?

Yes, it's a complex holoenzyme with multiple subunits.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

Are both enzymes discovered by the same scientist?

Yes, both were discovered by Arthur Kornberg.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

Is DNA polymerase III involved in DNA repair?

Its primary role is replication, not repair.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

What's the speed of DNA polymerase III's replication?

It replicates DNA rapidly and efficiently.
Janet White
Feb 10, 2024

How does DNA polymerase III contribute to bacterial survival?

By efficiently replicating the bacterial genome for cell division.
Janet White
Feb 10, 2024

What's the role of DNA polymerase III in primer synthesis?

It doesn't synthesize primers; that's the role of primase.
Sawaira Riaz
Feb 10, 2024

What makes DNA polymerase I unique in its function?

Its role in removing RNA primers and repairing DNA.
Janet White
Feb 10, 2024

Can DNA polymerase I synthesize long DNA strands?

It mainly works on short stretches of DNA.
Janet White
Feb 10, 2024

Are there similar enzymes in eukaryotes?

Eukaryotes have analogous enzymes, but with different specifics.
Janet White
Feb 10, 2024
About Author
Written by
Sawaira Riaz
Sawaira is a dedicated content editor at difference.wiki, where she meticulously refines articles to ensure clarity and accuracy. With a keen eye for detail, she upholds the site's commitment to delivering insightful and precise content.
Edited by
Huma Saeed
Huma is a renowned researcher acclaimed for her innovative work in Difference Wiki. Her dedication has led to key breakthroughs, establishing her prominence in academia. Her contributions continually inspire and guide her field.

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