Difference Between Deoxyribose and Ribose

Main Difference

Deoxyribose comes into existence through ribose whenever the hydroxyl group within their structure becomes replaced with hydrogen. Ribose is the sugar that belongs to the pentose class and exists widely on the planet, mostly as part of a constituent of nucleosides and other vitamins and enzymes.

Deoxyribose vs. Ribose

Deoxyribonucleic acid aka DNA and Ribonucleic Acid aka RNA is the molecules within the living body that perform various functions within the body. Ribose and Deoxyribose are the primarily components in production and synthesis of RNA and DNA. The most prominent function of RNA is that it directs the assembly of proteins on ribosomes, on the other hand, DNA in the cell has long-term storage of information and is used as genetic backbone by each and every of the living creature. Ribose and deoxyribose are the crucial components of nucleotides that are present in the in the RNA and DNA of the living organisms respectively. Both ribose and deoxyribose are the pentose monosacchride or simple sugars, the real difference comes in their formula or composition as ribose has the chemical formula C5H10O5, whereas deoxyribose has the chemical formula C5H10O4. With their chemical formula known, we have spot the major difference between them, the main difference between them is even suggested by the name (deoxy) itself as in in this one oxygen atom is cut off as compare to the ribose.

Comparison Chart

BasisDeoxyriboseRibose
DefinitionComes into existence through ribose whenever the hydroxyl group within their structure becomes replaced with hydrogen.The sugar that belongs to the pentose class and exists widely on the planet, mostly as part of a constituent of nucleosides and other vitamins and enzymes.
Chemical FormulaDeoxyribose has the chemical formula C5H10O4. Ribose has the chemical formula C5H10O5
DiscoveredDeoxyribose was first discovered by Phoebus Levene in 1929.Ribose was first discovered by Emil Fischer in 189.
EnantiomersDeoxyribose has 2 enantiomers, D-2-deoxyribose and L-2-deoxyribose.Ribose has two enantiomers; D-ribose and L-ribose.
LocationDNARNA
ExistenceIt exists as a modified sugar and does not have one oxygen atom with the carbon.It exists as a normal sugar that has one oxygen atom attached to each carbon atom.
StructurePentagon that has a loss of an -OH group in the second ring position.Pentagon that stays stable with oxygen atom.

What is Deoxyribose?

Deoxyribose is the pentose monascahhride or simple sugar that is one of the major component in formation of the DNA.and it is even found in the DNA. As the name suggests, the only difference it has from ribose, which is another active component used in production of nucelotides is that it has one less Oxygen atom in it. The chemical formula of deoxyribose is C5H10O4. With this one Oxygen atom difference, an enzyme recognizes them and gets collaborated for the further production. Deoxyribose was first discovered by Phoebus Levene in 1929. Deoxyribose has 2 enantiomers, D-2-deoxyribose and L-2-deoxyribose. The D-2-deoxyribose is the major component of the DNA, therefore it is present widely in nature, on the other hand, L-2-deoxyribose is rarely present in nature. It should be kept mentioned that there is only the difference of one Oxygen atom between, ribose and deoxyribose, an addition of Oxygen can make deoxyribose a ribose.

What is Ribose?

Ribose is the pentose monascahhride or simple sugar that is one of the major component in formation of the RNA.and it is even found in the RNA. The chemical formula of ribose is C5H10O5. Ribose is a 5-Carbon sugar that is found in nucleic acids, therefore it is called the pentose sugar. And as the formula and composition of ribose tells 5 oxygen atoms and 5 Carbon atoms. The chemical structure is quite a superb with one Oxygen atom attached to each Carbon atom. Ribose has two enantiomers; D-ribose and L-ribose, out of which, D-ribose is present widely in nature, whereas L-ribose lacks presence in nature. Ribose were first discovered by Emil Fischer in 1891.

Key Differences

  1. Deoxyribose comes into existence through ribose whenever the hydroxyl group within their structure becomes replaced with hydrogen. On the other hand, Ribose is the sugar that belongs to the pentose class and exists widely on the planet, mostly as part of a constituent of nucleosides and other vitamins and enzymes.
  2. Ribose has its location within the RNA, on the other hand, deoxyribose has its position within the DNA structure.
  3. Ribose exists as a normal sugar that has one oxygen atom attached to each carbon atom. On the other hand, deoxyribose exists as a modified sugar and does not have one oxygen atom with the carbon.
  4. A deoxyribose is not quite the same as a ribose since it is missing one oxygen particle and does not contain the liquor gathering. Ribose is an active sugar made in the body from glucose and is a central segment of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), this aggravates that stores and conveys vitality in all cells.
  5. Both these have almost the same structure, but the only difference comes when the loss of an -OH group in the second ring position.
  6. Both the ribose and deoxyribose perform their tasks in the same way with the only difference coming in the way they implement things and the outcome of the results.
Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White

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