Difference Wiki

Thyroid vs. Parathyroid: What's the Difference?

Edited by Aimie Carlson || By Harlon Moss || Updated on October 28, 2023
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck producing hormones regulating metabolism, while the parathyroid consists of four small glands behind the thyroid regulating calcium levels in the blood.

Key Differences

The thyroid is a large, butterfly-shaped gland situated at the front of the neck. It's responsible for producing hormones like thyroxine, which play a pivotal role in metabolism, growth, and development. In contrast, the parathyroid glands are much smaller, typically numbering four, and are located behind the thyroid. Their primary function is to regulate the calcium levels in the bloodstream through the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH).
While both the thyroid and parathyroid glands are vital for bodily functions, they cater to different physiological processes. The thyroid's hormones influence body temperature, energy usage, and overall metabolic rate. In comparison, the parathyroid focuses primarily on bone health, calcium absorption, and calcium release from the bones, ensuring the body maintains a stable calcium balance.
Disorders related to the thyroid can have a wide range of symptoms, given the gland's extensive influence on metabolism. Conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) can impact weight, mood, and energy levels. On the other hand, parathyroid disorders mainly revolve around abnormal calcium levels, leading to conditions like hyperparathyroidism, which can cause kidney stones, osteoporosis, or mood disturbances.
The thyroid gland absorbs iodine from food and uses it to manufacture its hormones. A balanced intake of iodine is essential for the thyroid to function properly. The parathyroid, however, doesn't have such dietary dependencies, focusing instead on the regulation of calcium through its feedback mechanisms.
In terms of medical evaluation, blood tests measuring thyroid hormone levels (T3, T4, and TSH) are used to assess thyroid function. For the parathyroid, doctors typically measure calcium and PTH levels to gauge its functionality.

Comparison Chart


Front of the neck
Behind the thyroid gland


Produces hormones regulating metabolism, growth, and energy
Regulates calcium levels in the blood

Number of Glands

One large gland
Typically four small glands

Related Disorders

Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, goiter
Hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism

Dietary Dependency

Relies on iodine intake for hormone production
Doesn't rely on specific dietary intake for function

Thyroid and Parathyroid Definitions


A gland essential for growth and energy regulation.
Thyroid hormones play a role in childhood development.


Small glands located behind the thyroid.
The surgeon carefully navigated around the thyroid to reach the parathyroid.


A butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck.
The doctor examined her neck to assess the size of the thyroid.


Organs that regulate calcium levels in the blood.
The parathyroid ensures our bones and muscles function properly.


An organ producing hormones influencing metabolism.
An imbalance in the thyroid can lead to weight fluctuations.


Essential for maintaining calcium balance in the body.
Without the parathyroid, our bodies would struggle with calcium regulation.


A gland that requires iodine to produce its hormones.
Iodine deficiency can adversely impact thyroid function.


Typically, four glands involved in calcium homeostasis.
An overactive parathyroid can lead to elevated blood calcium.


The body's regulator of metabolic rate and body temperature.
A malfunctioning thyroid can cause fatigue and temperature sensitivity.


Producers of parathyroid hormone (PTH).
PTH, secreted by the parathyroid, plays a role in bone health.


The thyroid gland.


Of, relating to, or obtained from the parathyroid glands
A parathyroid extract.


What's the main function of the parathyroid?

The parathyroid regulates calcium levels in the bloodstream.

Is iodine important for thyroid function?

Yes, iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones.

What is goiter?

Goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland.

How many parathyroid glands does a person typically have?

Most people have four parathyroid glands.

What role does the thyroid play in body temperature regulation?

Thyroid hormones help regulate the body's temperature set-point.

Can thyroid conditions impact mood?

Yes, thyroid imbalances can affect mood, causing symptoms like depression or anxiety.

What hormone does the parathyroid produce?

The parathyroid produces parathyroid hormone (PTH).

How does the thyroid influence energy levels?

Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism, impacting overall energy levels.

Where are the parathyroid glands located?

The parathyroid glands are located behind the thyroid gland in the neck.

What conditions can arise from parathyroid malfunctions?

Disorders like hyperparathyroidism or hypoparathyroidism can result from parathyroid issues.

How can one test thyroid function?

Blood tests measuring T3, T4, and TSH levels can assess thyroid function.

Can parathyroid issues lead to kidney problems?

Yes, elevated calcium levels from parathyroid disorders can cause kidney stones.

Are parathyroid disorders hereditary?

Some parathyroid conditions have genetic links, but many cases are sporadic.

What hormones does the thyroid produce?

The thyroid produces thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin.

Can thyroid disorders affect weight?

Yes, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can influence body weight.

How do calcium levels influence the parathyroid?

Low calcium levels stimulate the parathyroid to release PTH.

Are thyroid nodules common?

Yes, many people have thyroid nodules, but most are benign.

How does the parathyroid affect the bones?

Through calcium regulation, the parathyroid influences bone density and health.

Can pregnancy impact thyroid function?

Yes, pregnancy can cause changes in thyroid hormone levels.

Are there risks associated with parathyroid surgery?

As with any surgery, risks exist, including potential damage to the thyroid or vocal cords.
About Author
Written by
Harlon Moss
Harlon is a seasoned quality moderator and accomplished content writer for Difference Wiki. An alumnus of the prestigious University of California, he earned his degree in Computer Science. Leveraging his academic background, Harlon brings a meticulous and informed perspective to his work, ensuring content accuracy and excellence.
Edited by
Aimie Carlson
Aimie Carlson, holding a master's degree in English literature, is a fervent English language enthusiast. She lends her writing talents to Difference Wiki, a prominent website that specializes in comparisons, offering readers insightful analyses that both captivate and inform.

Trending Comparisons

Popular Comparisons

New Comparisons