Difference WikiBiology

Difference Between Sugar and Glucose

Main Difference

The main difference between Sugar and Glucose is that the Sugar is a disaccharide containing molecules of glucose and fructose, whereas Glucose is a monosaccharide.

ADVERTISEMENTS

Sugar vs. Glucose

Sugar falls into the category of disaccharides containing one each molecule of glucose and fructose. Glucose falls into the category of monosaccharide. Disaccharides such as sugar contain two linked monosaccharide that breaks during the process of digestion. Monosaccharide such as glucose consists of one unit of sugar; hence it is not broken into simple compounds. Sugar is a disaccharide, so it breaks in the simple form before getting absorbed into the bloodstream. Therefore it does not quickly give energy to the body the way glucose does. Glucose is a monosaccharide, so it does not break and absorbed directly into the blood. Due to this direct absorption, it increases the blood sugar more rapidly, stimulating the release of insulin.

The scientific name of table sugar or sugar is sucrose. Glucose is not having any simple name. Sugar is a naturally occurring substance that is present in fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy products. Glucose is also found naturally in fruits, vegetables, milk, and grains. Sugar is white in the crystalline or powdery solid form. Glucose is a white powder.

ADVERTISEMENTS

The term sugar derived from the French word sucre, meaning ‘sugar.’ The term glucose is derived from the Greek work glykys meaning “sweet.” Sugar is typically extracted from sugar beets or sugar cane. Glucose found in processed foods is in the form of dextrose that got derived from cornstarch. Sugar or sucrose has got more sweetness than glucose. Glucose is having less sweetness than sugar. The formula of sugar is C12H22O11. The formula of glucose is C₆H₁₂O₆.

Comparison Chart

SugarGlucose
A disaccharide containing molecules of glucose and fructose called sugarMonosaccharide consists of one unit of sugar called glucose
Sweet
MoreLess
Term Origin
From the French word sucre, meaning ‘sugar.’From Greek work glykys meaning “sweet.”
Molecular Formula
C12H22O11C₆H₁₂O₆
Extracted From
Sugar beets, sugar caneCornstarch in the form dextrose
Molecular Weight
342.3 g/mol180.16 g/mol
Exact Mass
342.116212 g/mol180.063388 g/mol
ADVERTISEMENTS

What is Sugar?

Sucrose is a crystalline powdered solid in white color, which is called sugar. It is a nonreducing disaccharide that is consists of two linked monosaccharides (glucose and fructose linked via their anomeric carbons). These two monosaccharide breaks down during the process of digestion. The scientific name of table sugar is sucrose. The annual production of sucrose throughout the world is 90 million tons. Twenty percent of which is from the juice of sugar cane and seventeen percent from sugar beet. Sugar breaks in the simple form before getting absorbed into the bloodstream. Therefore it does not quickly give energy to the body the way glucose does.

On a commercial scale, sugar is obtained from sugarcane, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Sugarcane/sugar beet is crushed and extracted with water, then evaporated and purified with lime, carbon, and other liquids to obtain sugar. It is also derived from sorghum. Sugar is vastly used as a sweetener in various processed foods, e.g., syrups, confectionery, jams, pharmaceutical products, caramel, ice creams, cereals, canned foods, soda drinks, beverages, candies, etc.

Other uses of sugar include; as a chemical intermediate for detergents and emulsifying agents. It is also spread in the seeds, roots, and different other parts of the plants to work as energy and carbon source for metabolism and biosynthesis. Moreover, sugar is used as a moisture control and thickening agent, food preservative, antioxidant, and stabilizer.

Properties

  • Molecular C12H22O11
  • Molecular Weight. 342.3 g/mol
  • Exact Mass. 116212 g/mol
  • Monoisotopic Mass. 342.116212 g/mol
  • The Heat of Combustion. 35X10+6 cal/mol
  • Denser than Water
  • Odorless

What is Glucose?

Glucose is an essential monosaccharide, which is the primary energy source for the body. Monosaccharide consists of a single unit of sugar, and it does not break into simple compounds. Glucose contains six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group known as an aldohexose. It is also known to be the primary source of energy for living organisms. It is a monosaccharide, so it is a simple sugar that gets absorbed into the body directly. It increases blood sugar more rapidly, stimulating the release of insulin. It relies on the enzymes named glucokinase or hexokinase to initiate body metabolism.

Glucose is naturally found in fruits and other parts of plants. It is extracted in the form of dextrose from cornstarch. It is also found in various processed foods, fresh fruits, and honey. It is used as an energy source immediately or can be stored in the liver and the muscles for later use. It is also known to be the blood sugar because it quickly gets absorbed into the bloodstream and circulates in the blood. However, it is also found in the human body from the digestion of carbohydrates. The glucose in animals generates from the breakdown of glycogen, and this process is called glycogenolysis. Glucose is a simple sugar found in some foods, including corn syrup, honey, blueberries, raisins, and peaches.

Properties

  • Molecular Formula. C₆H₁₂O₆
  • Molecular Weight. 180.16 g/mol
  • Exact Mass. 180.063388 g/mol
  • Monoisotopic Mass. 180.063388 g/mol
  • Soluble in Water

Key Differences

  1. Sugar is a disaccharide, whereas glucose is a monosaccharide.
  2. Sugar contains one each molecule of glucose and fructose; in contrast, glucose contains two linked monosaccharides.
  3. The term sugar derived from the French word sucre, meaning‘sugar’ on the flip side the term glucose is derived from the Greek work glykys meaning “sweet.
  4. Sugar is a disaccharide, breaks down during the process of digestion, while glucose does not break into simple compounds.
  5. Sugar is not quickly absorbed into the bloodstream; on the other hand, glucose is swiftly broken and absorbed directly into the bloodstream.
  6. The formula of sugar is C12H22O11 inversely; the formula of glucose is C₆H₁₂O₆.
  7. Sugar does not give instant energy to the body; conversely, glucose provides instant power for the body.
  8. Sugar present in processed foods is commonly extracted from sugar beets or sugar cane; on the contrary, glucose found in processed foods is in the form of dextrose that got derived from cornstarch.
  9. Sugar or sucrose is sweeter; on the converse, glucose is less sweet than sugar.

Conclusion

Sugar and glucose are different from each other in their chemical and physical properties, extraction sources, digestion by the body, and affects.

Janet White

Janet White is a writer and blogger for Difference Wiki since 2015. She has a master's degree in science and medical journalism from Boston University. Apart from work, she enjoys exercising, reading, and spending time with her friends and family. Connect with her on Twitter @Janet__White